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How to assess risks at Field level of Master data tables

        In one of the earlier blogs, the purpose and process of developing master data tables were shared. This blog summarises key aspects to carry out risk assessment at the field level of master data tables as relevant for Design functions ie. (Design of Architect, Design of Interior, and Design of MEP)  Risk Assessment at - Field level of Master data tables Activities to assess risks at field level of Master data table level 1. Identify parameters that can influence “Field level” risks- w.r.t each Master data table Once Master data tables have been identified, HOD/functional team, in consultation with risk management or the Internal audit team, identifies a list of essential aspects that can facilitate the classification of “Field risks” as High or medium, or low. Some of the aspects are as below: ·       Purpose or ingredients of the field in business activity in which the intended “Field “is used. ·       Consequences of populating field inaccurately vis-à-vis project design or project Quality or project costs or statutory conformance This activity also necessitates the identification of Ingredients of Field that can influence the classification of risks in “Field” as High   or Medium or low are as below in case of i)              Field populated inaccurately  ii)             Fields accessed or amended unauthorizedly 2. Design a risk assessment template at the Field level vis-à-vis each Master Data Table 3. Software programming of risk template for Field level 4. Populate “Field” level risks vis-à-vis each Master data table 5. Affect Changes in above Few illustrations of risk classification at the field level of master data table levels:          Field Consequences if Ingredients of Field are inaccurate or unauthorizedly accessed & amended  Risk classification proposed at the Field level  Function: Design of Architect, Mater data table:  Drawings/specification master-Packages in Civil works Drawings & technical specifications for the scope of work, including for BOQ - Structure work’s packages Not meeting customer requirements and thus leading to adverse impact on sales volume due to non-robust design vis a vis below aspects.  i)Not meeting national building code standards or statutory specifications or ii) Compromise of safety or & iii)Compromise on Quality or & iv) Statutory/sanctioned or approved design or & drawing High Drawings & technical specifications - Civil Building work’s package As above High Drawings & technical specifications - Facade work’s package.  As above High Drawings & technical specifications - External development areas / Landscape /hardscape work package. As above High Drawings & technical specifications - Softscape work’s package     As above High And so on     Function:  Interior of buildings, Mater data table: Drawings/specification -master-Packages in Interior Design works  Drawings & technical specifications for the scope of work, including for BOQ -Finishing work’s/packages Not meeting customer requirements and thus leading to adverse impact on sales volume due to non-robust design vis a vis below aspects.  i)Not meeting national building code standards or statutory specifications or ii) Compromise of safety or & iii)Compromise on Quality or & iv) Statutory/sanctioned or approved design or & drawing High Drawings & technical specifications -Furnishing & Fixtures related packages As above High Drawings & technical specifications -Equipment packages, e.g. Gym, Bathroom, etc.  As above High Drawings & technical specifications -Artworks, Props, and other packages As above High And so on     Function: Design of MEP, Mater data table: Drawings/specification master-MEP Package  Drawings & technical specifications for the scope of work, including for BOQ -External Electrical work       Not meeting customer requirements and thus leading to adverse impact on sales volume due to non-robust design vis a vis below aspects.  i)Not meeting national building code standards or statutory specifications or ii) Compromise of safety or & iii)Compromise on Quality or & iv) Statutory/sanctioned or approved design or & drawing High Drawings & technical specifications -Internal Electrical work        As above High Drawings & technical specifications -Airconditioning or &VRV or & Heating work  As above High And so on       Activities that can adversely impact business ·       Inappropriate levels/positions of team members of “3 Design functions”  with  consequent inadequate skills for comprehending field-level risks of Master Data Tables ·        Inappropriate software development and workflow of risk templates making risk capturing of field level risks at master data table cumbersome and inefficient ·       Inadequate understanding and hence inappropriate capturing of the consequence of Incorrect accessing and use of Master data tables in “3 Design functions” *       ·       Inaccurate classification of Risk level High, Medium, or Low by team members of “3 Design functions” * ·       Non-periodic/non-timely review of previously populated risk template to incorporate changes in Master data tables level risks and so on *       Handbook of the author  A template illustrating risk classification, as High, Medium, or Low at the field level of Master data table level is included in chapter 10 (annex 16D) in the handbook of the author and titled” ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “          


Risk assessments- At Field's level of configuration Tables

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In one of the earlier blogs, the purpose and process of developing configuration tables were shared.This blog summarises key aspects to carry out risk assessment at the field choice level of the configuration table as relevant for Design functions. 2.1 Risk Assessment at - Field Choice level of configuration tables- Illustration of risks templates 1. Identify parameters that can influence “Configuration Table level” RisksOnce configuration table requirements /conceptualization has been done, the HOD/design functional team Identifies the consequences of incorrect accessing and use of specific /identified Configuration table vis-à-vis:·       Adverse impact on Package specifications or Project package design ·       Adverse impact on BOQ quality or construction quality ·        Adverse impact on Statutory conformance ·       Adverse impact on Project costs 2. Design a Risk assessment template at the field choice level of the configuration table level 3. Software Programming of the Risk Assessment template 4. Populate field choice level of the configuration table level risks in the template Function Field “Choices” vis a vis each field Code for field choice Parameters influencing risk classification Risk classification at the Field Choice level Design of Architecture Structure A01 Incorrect designing of Architecture of unit, area, or building Medium Civil works A02 Medium Façade A03 Medium External development A04 Medium Softscape A05 Medium And so on, other choices in this field xx XXXX Interior Designing Finishing B01 Incorrect designing of the Interior of the unit, area, or building Medium Furnishing & Fixtures B02 Medium Interior design equipment B03 Medium Artworks etc. B04 Medium And so on, other choices in this field BXX XXXX Design of MEP External electricals C01 Incorrect designing of MEP of the unit, area, or building   Incorrect designing of any other package relevant to the unit, area, or building Medium Internal electricals, C02 Medium Air conditioning C03 Medium Plumbing C04 Medium Fire fighting C05 Medium fire protection C06 Medium And so on, other choices in this Field CXX XXXX  A similar assessment is to be carried out for other Fields. 2.2 Activities that can adversely impact business ·       Inappropriate levels/positions of “Design functions” team members with consequent inadequate skills for comprehending Configuration tables level risks. ·       Inappropriate software development and risk template workflow make Risk capturing at the configuration table's field level cumbersome and inefficient.·       Inadequate understanding and hence inappropriate capturing of Consequence of Incorrect accessing and use of configuration tables in “Design functions” *      ·       Inaccurate classification of Risk at “Field choice level” of configuration table (High, Medium, or Low) by functional team member *·       Non-periodic/non-timely review of previously populated risk template to incorporate changes in Configuration tables level risks and so on *  Handbook of the author  A template illustrating risk classification as High, Medium, or Low at the field choice level of the Configuration table-level is included in chapter 10 (annex 15D) in the handbook of the author and titled” ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services. “    


Ensuring statutory conformances by MEP designers during the designing process

 In an earlier blog, it was shared that 48 key Statutory Acts are directly applicable (for 13 key functions in the real estate & hospitality Industry). In addition, there are 34 statutory Acts indirectly relevant through supporting functions like corporate Finance, Corporate Services, HR, etc. The number & provisions of Statutory Acts and activities listed in this blog are in the context of Indian Industry, and readers in countries other than India can modify these to meet similar type requirements of each country.  For these 13 functions, eight types of statutory processes having 113 associated statutory activities have been identified as applicable. For the Design of the MEP function, four types of statutory processes (out of 5 types) are directly relevant, with ten key statutory activities (out of 113 identified) required to be performed as summarised below.   ·       Process1: Meeting statutory and taxation obligations; Activities =2 as below 1.    Publishing on web site RERA, Project wise details (The RERA Act,2016) 2.    Summary of inward/outward supplies along with payment of tax (The GST Act,2017) GST ·       Process 2: Obtaining Licenses, approvals, and maintaining statutory records w.r.t Statutory Acts; Activities =3 as below 1.    Complying with prescribed provisions of all applicable Acts & associated rules 2.    Maintaining statutory prescribed records 3.    Coordinating statutory inspections of business premises & documents ·       Process 3: Complying with IGST matters; Activities =4 1.    Filing returns towards inward/outward supply of goods and services, ITC -input tax credit availed, output tax payable under section 35(1) 2.    Complying with requirements w.r.t. imported goods or services under GST rule 56(1) 3.    Complying with requirements w.r.t GST payable, collected, paid, and ITC availed under GST rule 56(4) 4.    Complying with requirements w.r.t maintaining details of suppliers & customers with their GSTN registration number under GST rule 56(5)   ·       Process 4: Deducting Income tax on services-TDS; Activities =1 1.    Computing the TDS amount on service charges as per applicable income tax rules & deduction of the same from dues payable to the service provider/consultant At their discretion, the Central Government /statutory authorities may amend the applicability of statutory laws or various sections as mentioned in this blog. Given below is the list of 14 activities that can adversely impact business is as below (if these are performed unethically or without proper diligence) Statutory Process 1: Meeting statutory regulations and tax obligations and filing various key returns on the scheduled time =6 ·       Obtain “certification for adherence to statutory /approved   sanctioned plans and project specifications and National Building code” through unfair means in case actual construction does not comply with sanctioned plans       ·       Bribe statutory agencies to obtain a “Completion Certificate” even before construction is completed to customers and realize payments through construction areas not yet ready for possession.   ·       Publish on website project details that are inaccurate vis a vis RERA-Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act 2016 (inputs to Architect team) ·        Non-timely capture of details vis-à-vis summary return of outward and inward supplies and services along with payment of tax compliance in respect of The Central Goods and Service Tax Act,2017.  ·       File returns inaccurately ·       File returns non-timely   MEP teams usually give details /inputs for the above to Finance & accounts or the legal team for meeting statutory requirements. Statutory Process 2: Obtaining Licenses, approvals, and maintaining statutory records w.r.t Acts=2 ·       Bribe the statutory inspectors during their visits to the construction site to validate that construction conforms to statutory approvals    ·       Not maintain or maintain and submit inaccurate statutory records and bribe visiting Statutory officials. . Statutory Process 3: Complying with IGST matters=5 ·       File return towards Inward and outward supply of MEP-related goods /services, ITC availed, output tax payable and paid under Sec 35(1)      ·       Comply with requirements w. r. t. Imported goods or services under GST rule 56(1)    ·       Comply with requirements w. r. t. GST payable, collected, paid, and ITC availed under GST rule 56(4)    ·       Comply with requirements w. r. t maintaining details of suppliers and customers with their GSTN registration number under GST rule 56(5)-      ·       Maintain record vis-à-vis inward or outward supply of MEP, design services, or inward collection of BOQ sample materials procured which are either incomplete or incorrect vis-à-vis amounts chargeable to GST or rate of GST or both    MEP teams usually give details /inputs for the above to Finance & accounts or the legal team for meeting statutory requirements.   Statutory Process 4: Deducting TDS-services=1 ·       Deduction of TDS (Tax deduction at source as per Income Tax Act,1961) at a rate different than prescribed.      Handbook of the author    You can read more about these 14 activities that can adversely impact business in Annexures 20B &21B and Chapter 3 of the author’s handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services. “      


Boosting the productivity of Architects, Interior, and MEP Designers- by developing & using Configuration tables

In addition to the use of the Master data table concept introduced in a blog https://www.ethicalprocesses.com/blog_detail/51,the concept of Configuration tables is being shared in this blog to improve designers' productivity further.  What are Configuration tables?The Configuration tables are primarily data tables that store data that represent multiple options in business and are required to be chosen frequently by designers such as below. ·       Types of packages (civil, interior design, MEP, and further drill down within each of these packages)·       Types of Organisations ·       Types of vendors/consultants/contractors/service providers/business associates·       Types of business documents·       Types of materials /BOQ items The configuration tables are usually created by consultants when designing the overall systems for the organization, usually within the ERP systems (like SAP) or “Designing software” as appropriate, by whatever name so-called in the “Designing software.”This blog highlights the process of developing configuration tables and includes illustrations of the contents of three configuration tables (columns 2&3 in the below table) in design functions as below: 1Design of Architecture -Configuration Table name: Type of packages in Civil works2 Interior designing -Configuration Table name: Type of packages in Interior design works  3 Design of MEP-Configuration Table name: Type of packages in MEP works  Illustration of contents of configuration Tables A few illustrations of the contents of Configuration tables in three design functions are as below:. Key function Configuration Table Number assigned.  Description of Fields in the configuration table and No tables with code range  Field number Field Choices Abbreviation for Field Choice Designing of Architecture of buildings CT211 Type of packages in Civil works F501 Structure   A01 Civil works A02 Façade A03 External development A04 Softscape A05 and so on AXX Designing of Interiors of buildings CT221 Type of packages in Interior design works F531 Finishing     B01 Furnishing and Fixtures B02 Interior design equipment B03 Artworks B04 And so on BXX Designing MEP and Engineering services CT231 Type of packages in MEP works    F556 External electricals   C01 Internal electricals C02 Air conditioning C03 Plumbing C04 Firefighting C05 Fire protection C06 Lifeworks C07 Fuel supply C08 Sewage treatment C09 Basement ventilation C10 and so on CXX   Functional designers can identify and develop more configuration tables within the above three options. The number of configuration tables can be expanded to as many as required, say, @10 per design function, depending on the size of projects/organisation as captured in annex 24E of the handbook. The concept of a configuration table can also be integrated with design software in addition to the use of ERP software. It may be named differently by the design software vendor.The fields used in configuration tables have several choices (unlike those used in master data tables and are hence unique).The number of field choices included in the above table (last column) is 19 but can be expanded out of more fields listed in Annex 1F in the handbook.The code numbering schemes (for configuration table, field, and field choices) mentioned in the above table are only for readers’ understanding from digitalization perspectives and can be changed at their discretion. More details about coding schemes are included in chapter 9 of the book. How to develop configuration tables?The steps are as below.1.    Identify key “Configuration Tables” that are relevant for design functions and need to be referred to frequently for executing business transactions 2.    Assign a unique “table number” for the above-identified tables  3.     Identify fields applicable to each of the above tables 4.    Identify “Field code” as relevant 5.    Identify various “choices” available within each field 6.    Assign a simple “choice code” to each field choice 7.    Design and populate the contents of configuration tables having columns as proposed below  ·       Configuration Table’s Number ·       Field name ·       Field code·       The choice description within the field ·       Choice code·       Field description/value as applicable Activities that can adversely impact business.·       Inappropriate design of configuration table by overcrowding of fields or field choices makes retrieving required information difficult for designers.·       Populate configuration tables in design functions inaccurately vis-à-vis relevant fields, field choices, and their codes while selecting options for populating BOQ and its specifications.·       Authorised designers, colluding and making circular changes in Configuration tables and, after executing transactions, restoring original field values of undue benefit to the business associate or team member*·       Not updating configuration tables in design functions online as and when changes occur or addition/deletion takes place in packages. In the above-listed activities, those marked *reflect those activities which can also have adverse statutory implications.  Handbook of the author  You can read more about the 21 activities(@7/function) that can adversely impact business as summarised below from chapter 5 of the author’s handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services. “   


How to assign Roles to Architects, interior, and MEP designers systematically? -An Illustration

  This blog aims to provide essential insights into the process of assigning roles to designers vis a vis 225 identified core design activities performed by designers as summarised below and included in the handbook mentioned at the end of this blog. ·       By Architects=118- For designing Design of structure+ Architecture+ Façade+ external development +softscape works ·       By Interior designers =37 -For designing Finishing works +Furniture, fixtures, and equipment for interiors +Artwork ·       By MEP designers =70 -For Electricals (external and internal) +Airconditioning and Basement ventilation works   This requires a basic understanding of four concepts as highlighted below i)Segregation of duties (Abbreviated as S-O-D) to avoid conflict of roles   ii)Development of Authorisation Profiles or simply called profiles in this Handbook   iii) Understanding the concept of roles   iv) Attaching Profiles to Roles Four concepts i)Segregation of duties S-O-D: The aspects related to S-O-D have been covered in one of the earlier blogs on my website and hence are not being duplicated (please refer to https://www.ethicalprocesses.com/blog_detail/49 ). Implementing S-O-D can enable avoiding conflict of roles amongst designers at different levels. ii)Development of Authorisation profiles -Accessing Core activities -1 illustration The author proposes developing five authorization profiles for performing each core activity, and illustrations are given below It is suggested that, for each design activity (within each design stage), there must be a distinct option to choose from any one or combination of the following five activities ·       Create or initiate the design activity e.g., initiate concept design or draw sanction drawings or make a tender, and so on) ·       Edit or modify the above design activity ·       Delete the above design activity ·       View the above design activity ·       Approve the above design activity An illustration for the “Design of Architecture function”, is captured below in a tabular form with a suggested profile code numbering scheme (given in the handbook, chapter 9 and hence not covered here), which of course, can be changed by the reader at their absolute discretion.   Function: Design of Architecture Name of Core process vis a vis activity for SOD development: Design of Structure Design Activity Description:  Developing Concept designs and schemes (based on design calculations of PCC/Reinforcements requirements based on a factor of safety/Earthquake zone etc.) and using software like STADD or ETAB. Risk Classification for accessing this Core Activity:  High. Profile numbers Proposed for accessing this Core Activity: PC02001 to PC02005(Compiled in Annexure 30A in the book mentioned below) Description PC02001 PC02002 PC02003 PC02004 PC02005 Key “Rights” vis a vis this activity (RHS of this row) Column 1 Create or   Initiate Column 2 Edit/ or Modify Column 3 Delete   Column 4 View   Column 5 Approve   Column 6 Function assigned Name (RHS of this row) (Design of Architecture (Design of Architecture (Design of Architecture (Design of Architecture (Design of Architecture Team assigned Number & name(RHS of this row)   T-5 Architect For all areas T-6 Functional Risk Coordinator T-6 Functional Risk Coordinator T6 Functional Risk Coordinator T-7 function head Employee Level Proposed (RHS of this row) Middle Higher middle middle Higher Position who can Perform (RHS of this row) Sr. Mgr. GM Sr. Mgr. Mgr. Project Head Thus for 1st illustrated design activity, 5 Profile numbers have been generated using the SOD concept as PC02001 to PC02005 to each set of Combination of Function +Team+ Level +Position vis columns 2,3,4,5 & 6, respectively. Team name, Positions & levels mentioned in this table are hypothetical for simple understanding of readers and can be suitably modified at the absolute discretion of the organisation   Interior & MEP designers can directly develop similar tables per the above illustration for all other packages. Such development of profiles is to be completed for each of the 225 design activities as identified in the handbook. It implies developing 1125 authorization profiles (@5x225 activities identified). However, before assigning rights /functions/levels/positions to each profile, each of the 225core design activities must be thoroughly studied and individually classified as having High, Medium, or low risks as per methodology given in a separate chapter 10 of the handbook and illustrations in annex 13C The Number of activities can be much higher or enhanced as required based on the size of construction projects and design organisation. Thus assuming 400 design activities in each of Architect, Interior, and MEP design functions, 2000 profiles per design function (@5 profile per activity, i.e., @ 2000 profiles for each of 3 design functions totaling 6000 profiles, i.e., PC02001 to PC08000 as captured in the book.  iii) Understanding the concept of “Roles” Roles mean what a particular professional (here a designer) is authorised to do as per a few examples below. ·       Developing a concept design is one simple role ·       Simply drafting or generating drawings is another simple role ·       Developing sanction drawings for statutory approval is another example of a simple role ·       Integration of designs say with MEP design is another role, which is a relatively complex role   ·       Developing detailed design and also making tenders is an example of the complex role   Based on the earlier tabulated illustration, the configured, “Authorisation Profiles” PC02001 to PC02005 so developed can be attached by the HOD-Architect function to simple “Roles” (with the help of the IT/ERP team) depending on the roles planned at the granularity level.  Once all the 1125 authorization profiles have been developed (or higher say 6000 profiles as stated above), attachment of these profiles to various roles is proposed to be done in three steps as below, particularly when the design organisation is operating in highly digitalized/ERP environments.      Thus, a role can have one or more combinations of profiles (out of 1125 profiles for 225 activities or 6000 expanded profiles) attached to it, to be called a “Simple or complex Role”.     iv) Attaching Profiles to Roles Although the Number of profiles can run into thousands (as mentioned above), the Number of designers in organisations is limited. It is therefore prudent that before the final attachment of profiles to roles, thorough testing is done to see that design activities are carried out smoothly based on competency assessments at different hierarchical levels & positions who will perform such roles.   The steps are:    a) Attach profile to roles in “Development computer server”   b) Test roles in “Test servers” by ERP teams and designers                 c) Upload roles to the “Production server” for implementation, after approval of testing of roles   To ensure that no incompatible or conflicting authorization profiles get attached, the roles, post-testing, can be attached to the production server by following P-D-C-A (plan-do-check-act) approach   Thus, the Number of roles can run into tens & hundred (as profiles may be in thousands) depending upon the following: ·       Size and complexity of the organization ·       the variety of Construction projects residential, commercial, educational, SEZ, etc ·       The skill level of designers ·       The multi-tasking role expectation of the organisation. ·       The technology of construction, design software, ·       The design organization structure and empowerment culture ·        Risk appetite of the company.        Therefore, to enable the digitalization for developing thousands of profiles, some ERP Vendors, like SAP, offer profile generating software, wherein standards authorization profiles can be developed and attached to architects, interior, and MEP designers for carrying out design development.    These roles can then be assigned to different positions, independent of the names of individuals after factoring following: ·       Number of teams & design functions ·       Number of employee levels ·       Types of positions in the hierarchy  ·       Competency level associated with roles (covered in earlier blog https://www.ethicalprocesses.com/blog_detail/46)   Such profile assignments can be done digitally but must be done diligently, and each role may have a multitude of authorisation profiles attached to it. Soon, please look for separate blogs that will be prepared & published for assigning roles to Architects, interior, and MEP designers (titled “Assigning access rights” for performing other activities, such as statutory activities, accessing master data tables, and so on.   Handbook of the author  A template illustrating assigning access rights to activities is included in chapter 11 (annex 26C) in the handbook of author and titled” ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “          


How to develop a Quantification model to determine Risk Scores in design activities

 List of activities performed by Architects, interior & MEP designers Below is a list of 225 activities usually performed by designers (for a typical mid-size construction project) during various design development stages. Architects: 118 design activities identified (For the design of the structure=7, building architect=65, Façade=22, external development=12, and softscape=12)Interior designers: 37 design activities identified (For the Design of finishing works, fixtures & equipment, and artwork)MEP designers: 70 design activities identified (For External &internal electricals=32 and Airconditioning using VRV and basement ventilation=38)A brief narration of these 225(118+37+70) design activities can be seen in annex 21A(2),21A(3 )&21A(4) respectively at the website https://www.ethicalprocesses.com  The number of activities can be more or less than 225 at the discretion of designers/organisation, depending on the type of organisation structure, project size, number of design packages and software used, etc.How to determine risksThe ultimate objective of risk assessment in design functions is to prevent risk occurrences by initiating countermeasures for preventing risks.The activities to assess risks include i. Designate Risks Assessment team (CFT-Cross-functional team)ii. Identify aspects that can contribute to core activity level risk iii. Design a risk assessment template for the core activity level iv. Software programming of risk templates.  v. Populate the “Risks” template by the design functions in consultation with CFT  Proposed Quantification Model for risk assessment - The template for quantifications is to be populated by assessing the Impact on the following in case design activities are performed incorrectly or without due diligence The Impact is to be ascertained on the following scales.  i)           Severity of Impact in case of risk occurrence (10-point scale)ii)         Detectability stage of risk being found out (10-point scale)iii)        Occurrence -likelihood of risk occurrence (10-point scale) The severity score: Determined based on 10 a point scale based on impact /adverse implications on aspects as below: i)Severity - adverse Impact on:a) Profitabilityb) Statutory compliancec) The strategic value of the company/company image affects customer retention d)Financial statement accuracy e) Reliability/effectiveness of design process being assessed Assigning scores ·                1 being the lowest adverse Impact on business. ·                10 being the highest adverse Impact on businessii)The detectability score: Determined based on a 10-point scale based on the detectability of adverse Impact at which stage as below: Detectability stage (any 1 of 5 stages)a) At the very 1st stage i.e. by the designer himself/herself while initiating or creating Design  b) At the design review /peer review or approval stage within the design function or outsourced consultant vetting design  c) At subsequent process/intermediate stage e.g construction stage of building  d) At the corporate (or in-house audit by the Project head) stage within the organization e) At the customer end after the handover of the building area (outside the organization)  Assigning scores ·                1 being the lowest adverse Impact on business (eg. Detection at Stage (a) above·                10 being the highest adverse Impact on business (eg. Detection at stage (e) above iii) Occurrence /likelihood score: Determined based on a 10-point scale based on design activity going wrong considering below cumulative factors: Assigning scores ·       1 being very low i.e.least number of causes from the below list ·       10 being extremely high i.e. large number of causes from the below list  a) Skill level of the designer performing an activityb) Segregation of duty for activities/role confusion c)Completeness of execution of design activity d)Validation at each stage of the design activity d)Correctness of source data (e.g. customer requirements, Quality standards, statutory requirements) e) Adequacy of internal controls f) Robustness of systems and updated SOPg) Authorisation norms for design activities creation, editing, deleting, viewing, and approvalh) Designing Process Logic correctness/accuracy of design assumptions  i) Other aspects: the complexity of business, change management, ethicsDetermining Risk score  For this Impact, the exposure matrix is to be developed based on the score to be computed as per the methodology below:·       Determining Impact score on a 100 Point scale (based on multiplication of score at (i) &(ii) above as per activity ·       Determining Exposure score on a 10 Point scale (based on the score at (iii) above as per activity In case, according to the design team, any of the activities marked as a), b), c) and so on onwards in point i), ii), iii) in the templates, that influence the score -determination are not relevant/not applicable, the same need not be considered for scoring. Illustration Template for one Key Core Process:  The below illustration is based on design activities performed for one package i.e. “Designing of building structure” but exactly 100% of the same template/model can be adopted for assessing risks vis a vis any package in Design of architecture or Interior design or MEP design. Activity vis a vis Core Process In “Designing of structure “   Impact score Out of 100 Exposure scores out of 10 Risk Classification Level Developing Concept designs and schemes (Based on design calculations of PCC/Reinforcements requirements based on a factor of safety/Earthquake zone etc.) and using software like STADD or ETAB. Say above 75 Say above 8 High Vetting of Design by proof consultant Say above 75 Say above 8 High Developing GFC and specifications for various structural elements like capturing TMT bar sizes, RMC, etc. for various structural elements  say 50 to 74 Say 5 to 8 Medium Preparing Tender (covering Tender drawings and specifications, technical specifications, Material brands, Quality standards, and so on)  say 50 to 74 Say 5 to 8 Medium Issuing Structural stability certificate Say above 75 Say above 8 High Making Cost estimates for structure Say above 75 Say above 8 High Issuing “As-built drawings” after the structure is complete and approved. Say 1-49 Say 1-4 low And so on in case of more number of design activities         The impact scores or exposure scores indicated in the above template are hypothetical and just for the reader’s understanding only. The scores may vary considerably as per the actual situation at the designer end based on the type of construction project, design software, and organisation.   Way-forward to Minimize the Risks Score  ·       Engaging professionally qualified designers ·       Ensuring design activities incorporate national &international quality standards·       Reviewing design activities from health & safety perspectives before approving ·       Ensuring transparency (amongst designers) of design calculations ·       Applying good design practices ·       Using licensed software·       Building internal controls to prevent giving and taking bribes·       Developing the following SOP·       Developing profiles at the granularity levels ·       Attaching profiles diligently ·       Implementing S-O-D (Segregation of duties) concepts while assigning roles ·       Assigning roles judiciously based on competency ·       Encouraging self-audit by designers·       Continuous competency enhancement of designers at each level·       Introducing performance measures through KPI       Handbook of the author   A template illustrating risk classification, as High, Medium, or Low at the core activity level is included in chapter 10 (annex 13E) in the handbook of the author and titled” ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “               


Enhancing the productivity of Architects, Interior, and MEP Designers- by developing & using master data tables

For efficient performing of designing related activities for large construction projects, the development of master data tables along with appropriate “Fields” s in design function is very crucial.The “Fields” in such tables are selected by designers but configured with help of IT/ERP consultants while designing the overall systems for the organization. The master data tables need to be configured within the ERP systems (like SAP) or and “Designing software” as appropriate, by whatever name so-called in the “Designing software”  What is “Field” The master data tables contain “Fields” which carry important information such as below:·       Drawings and technical specifications including that of BOQ -unique for each design works package like structure, architecture, Interior design package, MEP ·       Scope of work - Line items- unique for each design works package like structure, architecture, façade, etc.And many more  This blog highlights activities to develop master data tables & few illustrations of master data tables as below. Activities to develop Master data tables:Usually, 5 activities must be performed to develop master data tables as below.1 Identify the key “Master Data Tables” names that need to be developed based on functional requirements  2. Assign a unique number to each identified master data table  3. Identify the “fields” as relevant for each Master data table 4. Identify the “field codes” applicable for these tables for digitalization5. Design and Populate the contents of master data tables having columns as proposed below Col 1. Key function  Col 2. Master table’s proposed name Col 3. Proposed table number Col 4. “Field” name/descriptionCol 5. “Field” code  Col 6. “Field” value (as applicable)Active brainstorming is needed among designers (Architects, Interior, and MEP Designers) and the IT and systems team, Project functions, and other interfacing functions for designing the contents of respective master data tables. This is because “Field”, though designed by a specific function, is often used by all functions, besides design functions such as construction project functions and commercial functions (as shown below) for enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of activities. i) Fields directly applicable to Construction Project functions ·       Land buying & Selling =16 ·       Designing of Architecture of buildings =27 ·       Designing of Interior of buildings=23 ·       Designing MEP & Engineering services=59 ·       Appointing Project Consultants & Contractors=50 ·       Construction of Buildings=50·        Green Building Certification=7·       Quantity Survey (QS) & Measurement=37·        Project Material Management=35 ·       Project Quality Management=55·       Legal & Secretarial=9·       Project Completion=15·       Selling of Constructed Areas=45Sub-total-Project functions=428   (Listed in annex 1F,1G of handbook named below) ii) “Fields” applicable to all functions =98 (Listed in annex 1A of handbook named below)  (e.g. company type, name & code, category of Project name, location and code, employee name, code etc)iii) “Fields” directly applicable to Management functions ·       Finance & accounts=50, ·       corporate services=25,·        Legal & secretarial =16, ·       IT/Systems=16(Listed in annex 1B of the handbook named below) iv) “Fields” directly applicable in Human resource=29, Administration=14(Listed in annex 1C of handbook named below)   Total number of “Fields” applicable in functions =676 The number of “fields” above are just illustrations and can run into hundreds. “Fields” can be planned and increased by Architect, Interior, and MEP designers as required as per the size of organisation, number of projects, and complexity of the projects 6 Illustration of developing master data tables and “Fields” A few illustrations of the contents of Mater data tables in three design functions are as below along with a few identified “fields”:    Name Design Function Master data table name “Field” name “Field” Value @ Architecture 1 Drawings/specification master-Packages in Civil works   Drawings and technical specifications - Civil Building works package, including BOQ   Drawings and technical specifications - Facade works package   Drawings and technical specifications – landscape works package        Created or initiated by   Date of creation   And so on more “Fields”   2 Scope of work Master -Packages in Civil works  Scope of work - Line items -Structure work packages   Scope of work - Line items - Civil Building works packages   Scope of work - Line items - Facade works packages      Created or initiated by   Date of creation   And so on more “Fields”   And so on more master data tables     Interior design 1 Drawing/specification master packages in Interior Design    List of Drawings and technical specifications for the scope of work, including for BOQ -Finishing works    Drawings and technical specifications -Furnishing &fixtures   Drawings and technical specifications – Equipment e.g. Gym, bathroom related, etc.   Drawings and technical specifications -Artwork.Props etc.   Created or initiated by   Date of creation   And so on more “Fields”   2 Scope of work Master -Packages in Interior design works      Scope of work - Line items in Finishing works   Scope of work - Line items in Furnishing and Fixtures.   Scope of work - Line items in -equipment   Scope of work - Line items in Artwork   Created or initiated by   Date of creation   And so on more “Fields”   And so on more master data tables     MEP design 1 Drawing & specification master -MEP packages  List of Drawings and technical specifications for the scope of -including for BOQ -External electrical works    Drawings and technical specifications -internal electrical works   Drawings and technical specifications – Air-conditioning &VRV works   Created or initiated by   Date of creation   And so on   2 Scope of work Master -MEP packages       Scope of work - Line items in external electrical works    Scope of work - Line items in internal electrical    Scope of work - Line items in -equipment   Scope of work - Line items in -Airconditioning &VRV works   Created or initiated by   Date of creation   And so on more “Fields”   And so on more master data tables      Note: @ indicates that the “Field” values need to be populated by the respective Architect, Interior, and MEP designer and are variable. Activities that can adversely impact business.·       Inappropriate selection of “Fields” in the Master Data Table or and having overcrowding of “Fields” making retrieval of required information difficult  ·       Inappropriate populating Master data tables in three design functions inaccurately vis-à-vis applicable “Fields” and their Values * ·       Authorised designers, colluding and making circular changes in “Field” values in the Master Data Tables and after executing transactions /performing design, restoring original “Field” description values. *·       Simultaneously, disabling of the audit trails by a designer to suppress the circular changes from the management or auditors or statutory authorities and providing undue benefit to the business associate or team member.  * ·       Not updating master data tables online as and when changes occur in specifications or scope of work vis a vis various “Fields” or addition/deletion of various “Fields” takes place.  ·       Inappropriate authorisation of master data table and the “Fields” therein. ·       Not implementing the SOD-Segregation of duty concept for approving master data tables.  In the above-listed activities, that are marked* reflect activities that can also have adverse statutory implications. You can read more about the 15 activities (@5/function) that can adversely impact business as summarised above from chapter 6 (and annex numbers mentioned above) of the author’s handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “    


Developing KPIs for Functions of Design of Architectural, Interior designing, and Design of MEP.

A KPI for a function is a measurable value that demonstrates how effectively a function is meeting organizational objectives. KPI needs to be specific, measurable, realistic, and communicated to concerned key functional team members to accomplish. How to develop KPI For developing a robust KPI system,11 business activities are considered essential in each of the 3 Project design and engineering functions as below. ·       Sharing of corporate targets like Sales nos, Revenue and Construction costs & Completion targets with HOD of Design of Architectural, Interior designing, and Design of MEP ·        Design of format/contents of KPI with inputs from CEO/MD ·        Identify important KPI for each of the 3 design functions based on corporate objectives and external influences like customer demand or & competitors’ offerings or & economy or &statutory considerations ·        Proposing initial KPI Targets and Measures by HOD of design functions ·        Reviewing, modifying, and approving the respective design team’s KPI by CEO/MD ·        Putting up measurement systems in place like reports /dashboards  ·        Converting each functional KPI into KRA-Key result areas of functional team members at different levels i.e. §  Higher level: directors-, HOD/Chief designer, General managers-GM, and so on as applicable §  Middle level: senior manager-sr. mgr, manager, and so on as applicable §  Lower level: assist. manager/junior mgr., staff, and workers so on as applicable ·       Monthly capturing of actual accomplishment of KRA by respective teams in templates ·       Periodic review of Actual accomplishment of KPI vs Target ·        In exceptional cases, reviewing, updating, and resubmitting KPI to CEO/MD ·       Compile Level-wise Actual vs Target of KRA and forward updated reports to the HR team for subsequent annual performance appraisal system at each level. Suggested Template for KPI -An Illustration Based on the above, a template with 9 columns and 20 rows is proposed below for the 3 Design functions which can be populated by the HOD of Architect, Interior design, and MEP design respectively   S.no             Suggested KPI     Measure of accomplishment   UOM         % Weight- age   Target   Actual    Score earned based on col 7/6x5  Remarks 1                       2             3    4      5    6      7        8        9 1 No of the projects for which Architectural, Interior, and MEP designs were commercialized successfully New projects commercialized Nos      5       Approval of Sample flat or mockup unit by potential customers leading to booking 2 Benchmarking of competitor’s projects       Site Visits to Sample apartments or & completed Construction projects to gather unique project features  Nos 5       Presentation to Promoters of the features and our plans to offer even better features in design plans 3 Mockup unit Development costs Costs include: i)Direct -pro-rata costs of dedicated manpower for Architecture, Interior design, or MEP functions   + ii)Outsourced consultancy iii)Mockup unit -costs of BOQ -local+ imports (excluding Interior design & MEP) + iv)Costs of consumables+ v)Costs of manpower for the construction of mockup+ vi)Dedicated Software+ vii)Travel costs directly related to Project+ viii)Rework costs+ viii)Surplus BOQ samples that are unusable Excludes -manpower engaged in supporting existing models Mockup/sample room costs Rs or USD/Project or Rs /USD 5         4 Timeliness -for preparation, release & approval of design works vis a vis   Developing Concept design On-time release - score on a 5-point scale, with five being excellent /delightful & 1 being poor    score 5       From the Start of Go ahead given by the promoter for designing the specific Projects  5 Timeliness -for preparation, release & approval of design works vis a vis Developing Schematic design  As above score 5         6 Timeliness -for preparation, the release of design works for obtaining Sanction design from statutory authorities (This KPI may not apply to Interior design)  As above score 5         7 Timeliness -for preparation, the release of design works vis a vis detailed Design-Based on statutory approvals including RERA/Statutory body as applicable  As above score 5         8 Timeliness -for  preparation,  comprehensiveness, and release  of Tenders vis a vis technical design aspect, including designs/technical specifications ·       Structure works ·       Civil works ·       Façade works ·       Landscape Works-Hardscape ·       Landscape works-Softscape ·       Interior design -Finishing ·       Interior design -FFE works ·       Interior design -Artwork ·       MEP-Electrical works ·       MEP-Airconditioning works ·       And so on  As above score 5         9 Timeliness -for preparation, comprehensiveness, and release   of Target/estimated   Project Costs in Rs or USD & or Rs or USD/sqft including (BOQ+ Labour+ direct construction variable costs)-  As above score 5       Package-wise costs along with assumptions to be prepared. 10 Timeliness -for preparation,  comprehensiveness, and release   of design works vis a vis Working drawing/GFC (Good for construction drawings)   As above score 5         11 Timeliness in obtaining statutory approvals (Before or during construction) such as below but not limited to: Zoning plans, Building /site plans & drawings, building height clearances, In principle approval for BOQ material specification of the works to be constructed & many more, including Structural design safety certification As above score 5         12 Comprehensiveness & accuracy of technical specifications & designs in tenders  As above score 5         13 Technical support to in-house purchase and contracting teams in selecting consultants and contractors and incorporating clauses in their agreements w. r. t. their scope of work, specifications, and deliverables  As above score 5          14  Quality of designs causing delays in project execution due to inadequacy/rework of designs vis a vis various packages for Architecture, Interior designing, MEP works vis a vis each package mentioned earlier      As above score 5         15 Rendering Support to Project construction team +Contractors during construction for issues related to constructability of design and drawings  As above score 5         16 Rendering support to the QS team for carrying out measurements of all related works  vis construction  packages  including bills for substitute/extra materials   As above score 5         17 Accuracy in the passing of outsourced consultant’s/service provider’s bills vis a vis deliverable in agreement  As above score 5         18 Timeliness for release of: -          As-built drawings & design -          Revised Project costs vis a vis target  As above score 5         19 Timeliness in obtaining statutory approvals-post construction such as below but not limited to: ·       Deed of declaration for actual area constructed ·       Occupation certificate, ·       Completion certificate etc. (This KPI may not apply to Interior design)  As above score 5         20 Cost reduction/Value engineering in BOQ Savings in Project cost Rs or USD 5                                             Total      100     *      Notes: * Total score earned of all KPI parameters can  be computed and used in annual  appraisal/ promotion etc ·       80-100=Excellent   ·       60-80= very good ·       40-60= average ·       20-40= below average ·       Below 20=Poor                                                                                                                              How to populate the KPI template i)Here each row represents a KPI parameter (along with the unit of measurement) with a score @5 for each KPI (as an example for simplicity) thus adding up to a total KPI Target score of 100 mentioned in column 5 of template ii) Basic inputs for computing actual accomplishment vis a vis each KPI are given in the last column   iii) The values for the targeted KPI and actual accomplishment, are to be filled in columns 6 & 7 respectively   iv) Thereafter score earned to be determined as:        The actual value in column 7        ………………………………………    X weightage score in column 5     Target value in column 6   eg.  For the 1st KPI in row 1 is no of projects commercialized with values as below                                                         Target =10 (column 6)                                                          actual= 9 (column 7)                                                     weightage=5 (column 5)                                           Score earned will be = 9/10 x5=4.5   v)  Likewise score earned of each KPI to be computed in 20 rows and say it works out to be = 85 vi) The total score earned as above can serve as one of the relevant qualitative inputs for performance appraisal.  This score will classify as an excellent category as the assumption mentioned at end of the table   vii) The HOD of Architecture, Interior design or MEP functions can make modifications, to the number of KPIs, and their description vis a vis this template in consultation with the Project head, CEO, and MD   viii) Likewise, HOD of Architecture, Interior design, or MEP functions assign different weightages to the KPI parameter listed in rows, instead of keeping 5 as mentioned in the above illustration but the total of all KPI must add up to 100 in column 5. viii) Suggest separate sheet to be prepared for Residential, commercial, hospitality, and other projects ix) KPI can be developed by teams of  Design of Interior and MEP functions based on a similar approach   Activities that can adversely impact the business while developing KPI   §  KPI parameters are non -comprehensive due to the following: §  Not aligned to Corporate Objectives §  Contain primarily transaction-related mundane indices   §  Measures of accomplishment are deliberately kept vague and not merit-based leading to the scope of manipulation   §  Percent weightages assigned to each KPI are biased with ulterior objectives of influencing outcome vis-à-vis performance perspective.   §  Targets Set are biased (too stretched or too loose) to reprimand or favor specific team members or specific levels of employees, leading to demotivation/dissatisfaction. §  The actual measurement carried out is captured inaccurately or manipulated.   §  Making circular changes in the KPI Targets or actuals during the performance review period and restoring original values, with ulterior motives and simultaneously disabling the audit trail to prevent detection.   §  In the workflow/embedded software (that enables accessing of KPI) incorporating incorrect indices vis-à-vis management-approved KPI indices by not exercising prudence leads to mistaken capturing of % Weightages or Targets   Detailed about business activities to be performed for developing the KPI are included in chapter 18 (annex 42B) in the handbook of the author and titled” ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services    


Avoiding conflicting roles amongst Architects, Interior and MEP designers

For carrying out various design function-related activities, the process of assigning user rights to core design activities, particularly in IT environments, is complex.  If Architects, Interior Designers, and MEP designers are assigned rights injudiciously, there can be conflicting roles as per a few illustrations below. Few Illustrations of conflicting role assignments in Design functions are tabulated below      SNo Design Activity Description       Architect       Assigned Say employee code Interior designer        Assigned Say employee code    MEP designer       Assigned Say employee code 1 Initiate or /create or design development activity at the Concept design development stage                         EA001   EI001   ME001   The same designer approves the Concept design without any peer review or higher-level designer                                  EA001   E1002   ME001 2 Initiate or /create or design development activity at the Schematic design development stage                         EA002   EI002   ME002   The same designer approves the Schematic design developed without any peer review or higher-level designer                                  EA002   E1002   ME002 3 Initiate or /create sanction designs/drawings for submitting to the regulatory body   EA003   Not applicable   ME003   The same designer approves the sanction designs/drawings developed without any peer review or higher-level designer and submitted to the regulatory bodies                                  EA003   Not applicable   ME003 4 Initiate or /create detailed designs/drawings based on statutory approvals   EA003   Not applicable   ME003   The same designer approves the detailed designs /drawings without any peer review or higher-level designer          EA003   Not applicable   ME003 5 Initiate or /create Tenders with technical and commercial terms EA004   EI003   ME004     The same designer approves the Tender without any peer review or higher-level designer          EA004   E1003   ME004 6 Estimating costs of the entire building based on various Bill of quantities EA004   EI003   ME004     The same designer approves the project cost without any peer review or higher-level designer   E004   EI003   ME004 7 Initiate or /create “As build designs/drawings” EA005   EI004   ME005     The same designer approves the As build designs/drawings” without any peer review or higher-level designer          EA005   E1004   ME005 8 Negotiate fees and payment terms with the outsourced “Consultant” for procuring consultancy-related design services  EA004   EI003   ME004   Approve the fee rate of the external consultant without involving the contracts team or finance team   EA004   E1003   ME004 9 Certify & Approve work initiation or completion of outsourced “Consultant” w. r. t.  designs and drawings EA003   EI002   ME003   Authorize payment releases for advance/other payments to outsourced “Consultant.” Against work initiation /completion   EA003   E1002   ME003 10 Create” an agreement with an outsourced “Consultant” towards services EA004   EI003   ME004   Approve/release such agreement directly (without vetting of Scope of design work, terms, and conditions by project-finance or and project-legal team or and Project head)   EA004   E1003   ME004 11 Make changes in the scope of the outsourced Consultant’s Consultancy work and associated deliverables EA004   EI003   ME004   Approve & release” the amended agreement to the outsourced “Consultant”.   EA004   E1003   ME004 12 Make changes in outsourced Consultant fees or reimbursement rates or payment terms EA004   EI003   ME004   Approve such amendments and pass Running account (RA) bills /final bills of outsourced Consultant for payments   EA004   E1003   ME004  Employee code no’s like EA001 & onwards, EI001 & onwards, ME001 & onwards mentioned above are just for simple understanding of readers and would vary based on the size of the construction company, no of projects to be designed, and design organization structure being lean or fat. Many more such conflicting role possibilities can be directly identified by readers in design functions related to Architects, Interior Designers, and MEP.  In some design functions, with a very lean design organisation, the same designers perform design activities for Architects or & Interior Designers or & and MEP designs. Implications Assigning conflicting roles, can trigger colluding of designers with outsourced consultants or contractors, or project team members, and compromising of the cardinal principle of "segregation of duties" leading to:·       Design deficiencies. ·       Adverse impact on project costs or construction quality or not meeting customer requirements or project completion timelines.·       Statutory non-conformances  Suggested approach – Assigning roles based on Segregation of duties The roles assigned to any designer need to be such that these are appropriate to the designer’s position/level, skill, and competence. The roles are to be assigned so that the cardinal principle of segregation of duties is followed to ensure that there are no conflicts of duties or incompatibility in roles. The activities proposed are as below: 1.     Identify Parameters for developing the S-O-D (Segregation of Duty) template for Assigning Access Rights to Core design processes and their activities 2.    Design SOD templates for assigning access rights to core design processes and their activities based on the parameters identified.3.    Software programming of SOD template for assigning access rights for core design processes and their activities4.    Populate the SOD template with “Access rights” related activities for core design processes. This includes reflecting the assigned profiles for capturing assigned profiles vis-à-vis activity for core processes5.    Affecting Changes     As and when changes occur vis-à-vis following for any reason, the design team reviewing and amending populated templates as above.·       Changes in design functions assigned for executing core processes·       Changes in core design processes·       Changes in design activities ·       Change in hierarchy levels in business hierarchy vis-à-vis lower, medium, and higher levels·       Changes in hierarchy positions of designers vis-à-vis low level, medium level, and high levels e.g.o   Lower level:  staff, junior/assistant manager, and so ono   Middle level: manager, senior manager-sr. Mgr. and so ono   Higher level: general managers-GM, directors-Dir and so on  More details and illustrations about the implementation of the Segregation of duties concept are included in chapter 11 (Templates at annex 26C,27C,28C,29C) in my handbook 


Design of External works(Hardscape): Activities that can adversely impact business -Function-Design of Architecture

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         The design scope includes roads, paved areas, pathways, drainages, water bodies, fountains, entry drives, gates, pavilions, recreation areas, gazebos, boundary walls, external lighting areas, signages, terraces, etc.Characteristics of a Robust External development work design can be measured vis a vis:Aspects in coordination with architects &Interior designers·       Designing for tasteful and functional paving  ·       Raising playgrounds at the appropriate level ·       Providing outdoor recreation and Physical activity  ·       Preservation of historical heritage ·       Designing all external works which conform to sanctioned/regulatory approvals·       Designing for Efficient utilization of space in the landscape area·       Designing Patios, deck designs, fencing, boundary walls, pavers, concrete works, pebbles, and safe Driveways·       Designing Lawn Furniture which is weather-proof ·       Provisioning of swimming Pool and Spas·       Designing of Patios, Fencing, Driveways, ·       Designing for Ponds and Water bodies  Aspects in coordination with MEP designers ·       Designing Ponds and Water bodies that are scenic ·       Create Swimming Pools and Spas that meet statutory/safety requirements·       Designing Outdoor Kitchen  ·       Proposing sustainable solutions in favour of the environment ·       Regeneration of polluted areas ·       Designing Storm-water management  ·       Providing solutions for cleaning the soil and water ·       Use of lighting as a powerful toolInputs that contribute to making a good design of Hardscape (landscape) design include:1 Proposing the right choice of materials, in terms of specifications while optimizing costs for the following: Types of materials for use Key specifications of building materials (as required by customers and National/international Quality standards) Stones/Marbles, Paving material, Pebbles Stones/Marbles Natural or synthetic, Overall dimensions -size, commercial name, country, thickness, colour, hardness, grain size, texture, polish ability, chemical properties, etc. Paving material Shape, size, thickness, compression strength, and coefficient of friction to prevent skidding Types (e.g., Asphalt, Concrete, albed, asphalt mixture, asphalt binder, etc.) Structure steel, low alloy steel, Stainless steel, etc Tensile strength, yield strength, elasticity, hardness, ductility, strain, toughness, and so on Wooden size, colour, luster, grains, content, hardness, density, shear resistance, and so on Aluminum strength to weight, air tightness, heat deflection, corrosion resistance, appearance, and so on plastics materials Strength, fire resistance, weather resistance, durability, size, colur, chemical resistance, thermal resistance, Signages Material type (steel, aluminum, plastic, glass, etc.), size, strength, type of lights, colour, language, etc.   And so on     2.      Incorporating, in Hardscape-related design & drawings, good practices for construction or & installation of the following as per applicable Quality standards: ·       Construction of irrigation & drainage system, subsoil drainage.·       Construction of sculptures, water bodies ·       Laying of turf ·       Developing Golf areas  ·       Installation, testing & commissioning of signboards, streetlights, night lighting unique fixtures, etc.·       Constructing external walls ·       Controlling vehicular traffic ·       Paving slabs·       Surfacing of gravels·       Laying of Kerbs and stones·       Construction & erecting structures ·       Providing inputs to the Architects, softscape architects, Interior designers, and MEP designers for integration of all designs across the project    ·       This may require using design software such as Idea spectrum Realtime landscape pro, NCH software dream plan, smart draw, etc., and other software options Five stages for developing the design of hardscape/external development   Design activities vary considerably from company to company, but generally, there are five stages to designing the Hardscape as below. Whatever designing processes and software are used, designing must result in developing Robust designs by accomplishing the following:·       Build designs that are comprehensive, accurate·       Contributes to building quality in construction by incorporating national and international quality standards in BOQ/material specifications and construction processes·       Integrates statutory and safety requirements (if applicable) in the designs and drawings  ·       Optimise project costs·       Enables efficient delivery of designs & drawings ·       Incorporates maker-checker step in each design stage through the implementation   of segregation of duties concept  The five stages are:Usually, there are 5 stages for designing hardscape/external development works as below. ·       1 Develop Concept designs                                    ·       2 Develop a Detailed design·       3 Develop Tenders (Technical design aspects·       4 Estimating Costs·       5 Issuing As-built drawing This may require using design software such as AutoCAD, Autodesk Revit, etc., and other software optionsIn the below-listed activities, those marked *reflect those activities which can have adverse statutory implications. Stage 1 Activities that can adversely impact business  ·       Not obtaining or and not incorporating inputs (like visioning for different types of rooms, halls, recreation areas, gazebos, restaurants, paved areas, pathways, water bodies, fountains, entry drives, gates, pavilions, boundary walls, lighting areas, signages, terraces) from functions into building Hardscape design·       Using unlicensed software while developing a concept design for Hardscape.   ·       Not vetting the concept and detailed design/making compromises while vetting Hardscape, in collaboration with, inhouse or outsourced Hardscape consultant, by skipping or compromising on important designs and drawings aspects such as below. Vis a vis Hardscape Features: ·       Tolerances on material specifications and Workmanship·        Statutory code-related requirements for Hardscape. *    ·       National and international standards for quality     ·        Raw Materials (hardware, glazing, stones, claddings, etc.) sizes and specifications ·       Quality requirements and suggestive gauging·       Hardscape safety requirements*    ·       Bribing mandatory Agencies which approve the Hardscape relevant for issuing compliance *           Stage 2 Activities that can adversely impact business      ·       Design intent not aligned to approved concept design.·       Hardscape detailed drawings, not comprehensive vis a vis site plans/drawings with dimensions, gradings, material, soil depth, drainage, water features, etc. or not accurate ·       Material specification incomplete  Stage 3 Activities that can adversely impact business  ·       In the tender, the designer/architect includes names and brands of specific materials only for pre-identified /preferred vendors of the designer/architect in return for commission/kickback from such vendors. *  ·       The designer/architect recommends only a single source for many BOQ materials and thus leaving very few options with the project materials team to negotiate prices aggressively in return for commission/kickback from such vendors ·       Tender drawings not incorporating applicable quality standards for all works. ·       Tender drawings not incorporating applicable statutory requirements vis-à-vis applicable national/international codes w.r.t safety. *  Stage 4 Activities that can adversely impact business      Computing Hardscape costs based on thumb rules rather than on the first principal basis vis-à-vis following, leading to underestimating or overestimating project costs. ·       Skipping a few BOQ input/raw materials costs for some of the areas such as roads, paved areas, pathways, drainages, water bodies, fountains, entry drives, gates, pavilions, recreation areas, gazebos, boundary walls, external lighting areas, signages, terraces, etc·       Inaccurate estimates of Cost elements such as BOQ materials used for civil works, steel, equipment, etc. both for inhouse and those in the scope of Contractor including labor component, construction, installation, etc. for all types of Hardscape elements Stage 5 Activities that can adversely impact business ·       The landscape designer /architect issuing “As-built drawings” for hardscape drawings that are aligned to earlier approved drawings by the project head but at variant vis-à-vis actual completed physical construction (in terms of approved plans and construction materials used etc).  You can read more about the 21 activities that can adversely impact business in Chapter 1 of my handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design and MEP services “  


Designing of Softscape / Landscape: activities that can adversely impact business -Function-Design of Architecture

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 The design scope includes the following: ·       Selection of following and finalising the specifications of: §  Trees §  Plants for exterior and interior areas, etc §  Ground covers §   Grassing §   Planters ·       Providing technical guidelines for planting, layouts, spacing, quantity take off, watering, and fungi-control and maintenance   ·       Designing of Golf course and other landscape sloping or uneven areas ·       Providing design ideas to the Architect team for §  Swimming Pools and Spas §  Lawn Furniture §  Outdoor Kitchens §  Landscape Lighting §  Watering system   Characteristics of a Robust softscape design can be measured vis a vis: Architecture /horticulture-related aspects  ·       Scenic beauty of the landscape ·       Contributing to air purification  ·       Selection of Plants/trees/shrubs etc installed as per planned specifications/sizes and aesthetically appealing in various spaces ·       Designing for efficient utilization of softscape space in the landscape area ·       Introducing roof gardens ·       Bringing in green walls ·       Golf course contours and grassing quality meeting International and national standards   MEP design-related aspects   ·       Preservation of the environment ·       Storm-water management ·       Cleaning the soil and water ·       Use of lighting as a powerful tool ·       Ease of maintenance Inputs that contribute to making a good Interior design include:      1 Proposing the right choice of Trees/plants, planters, etc., in terms of specifications while optimizing costs :   Types of softscape/ landscape items   Key specifications of plants & trees (as required by customers and suggested by Horticulturist /designers or applicable quality standards) Trees Types (coconut palm, oak, pine, redwood, etc.), Sizes: Height, stem/trunk diameter, attached branches, canopy uniformity & fullness, leaves, flowers/fruits, etc., root, etc.) Ground covers -for areas like  garden, landscape, kitchen, inside rooms, work areas   Choices: Flower Colour, fragrance, charm, sizes Types:  rubber, wandering Jews, betel leaf, peace lily, fittonia-spotted plant, dummies-(Ixora, herbs, anthurium, hoya), etc. wooly thyme, Irish moss, blue star creepers, Roman chamomile, lady’s mantle, Corsican mint, beach strawberries, and so on),     Grassing-(cool or warm season) 1Blade – flat, narrow, sharp, pointed, rounded hair-like e, V shape, visible vein, broad            2colour/texture -soft, dense, dark green, pale green, spongy, pricky, stiff, carpet like               3 Size growth-height, bunch type, quick, slow 4 Water-frequent, average, below average 5 Cool season- few examples-Bent grass, Fine fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, Ryegrass, Tall fescue,      6 Warm season -few examples -Bermuda, centipede, Zoysia, Dichondra, St. Augustine grass, Golf course-9 holes or 18 holes Specifications of different parts of a Golf course   ·       The tea box (teeing ground where hole begins), ·       fairway (30-50 meters from the hole with tight trimmed grass) ·       The green (where each hole is located, with cut short grass) ·       The rough (an area that surrounds the fairway with longer grass) ·        Hazards (ponds, lakes, creeks, etc.), bunkers Turf grass-durable, drought tolerant, climate-driven Turf choices (Bermuda, Bentgrass, Fescue, Zoysia, Poa annua, Rye) Planters-outdoor or indoor Types-Ceramic, plastic, wooden, concrete, nursery pots, garden-planter Urns, grow bags, window boxes, wall planters, vertical planting towers, hanging baskets, railing planters, raised beds, terrariums, globe containers, themed planters, Physical-Dimensions, shapes, colour, texture,  weight, strength, weatherability, porous/drainage holes, durability, water circulation, ants proof, And so on        2 Incorporating, in Landscape(softscape) related design & drawings, good practices for planting or & installation of the following as per applicable Quality standards:   ·       Guying and planting of Trees, and plants, Ground covers, grass ·       Fertilisation   ·       Transplanting ·       Watering ·       Handling ·       Pest control ·       Fungicides control ·       Method of constructing Golf- course   3 Building quality in the designing process for Softscape using designing software: ·       Horticulturists proposing High-Quality §  Trees Plants §  Ground covers, shrubs, etc §  Grass §  Planters §  Golf course §  Watering system §  Planting, growing, and maintenance of plants ·       Providing valuable inputs to other designers (architect or & interior designer, or & MEP designer) for: §   Designing of swimming Pool, ponds, and waterbodies §  Designing of Patios, Fencing, Driveways, §  Designing Lawn /landscape furniture §  Designs for Landscape Lighting §  Designing for the watering system This may require using design software such as Idea spectrum Realtime landscape pro, NCH software dream plan, smart draw, etc., and other software options Five stages for developing the design of Softscape       Design activities vary considerably from company to company, but generally, there are 5 stages to designing the softscape as below. Whatever designing processes and software are used, designing must result in developing Robust designs by accomplishing the following: ·       Build designs that are comprehensive, accurate ·       Contributes to building quality in construction by incorporating national and international quality standards in BOQ/material specifications and construction processes ·       Integrates statutory and safety requirements (if applicable) in the designs and drawings   ·       Optimise project costs ·       Enables efficient delivery of designs & drawings ·       Incorporates maker-checker step in each design stage through the implementation   of segregation of duties concept   The five stages are: ·       1 Develop Concept designs ·       2 Develop a Detailed design ·       3 Develop Tenders (Technical design aspects ·       4 Estimating costs ·       5 Issuing As-built drawing In the activities listed below, those marked ‘*’ reflect those activities which can have adverse statutory implications.     Stage 1 Activities that can adversely impact business   ·       Not obtaining and not incorporating inputs (like types and sizes of plants, ground covers, planters, and plants for exterior and interior areas) from property owners, sales team, and design teams functions in Building Softscape design ·       Using unlicensed software while developing a concept design for Softscape* ·       Not vetting the concept and detailed design /making compromises while vetting Softscape, in collaboration with, inhouse or outsourced Horticulture consultant, by skipping or compromising on important designs and drawings aspects such as below vis a vis Softscape Features: §  Tolerances on softscape material specifications and workmanship for installation §   Bill of quantities for Softscape- plants, ground covers, grassing, trees, planters, and plants     §  National and international standards for quality    §   Sizes and specifications for Softscape §  Softscape safety requirements *    ·       Bribing mandatory Agencies (e.g., green building-related) which approve the Softscape relevant for issuing compliance *     Stage 2 Activities that can adversely impact business   ·       Design intent not aligned to approved concept design ·       Softscape specifications/detailed drawings not comprehensive or not accurate vis a vis plants, ground covers, grassing, trees, planters, etc. ·       Softscape layout, spacings, and quantities w. r. t. softscape elements are neither comprehensive nor accurate ·        Methods for guying, watering, handling, pest control, transplanting, equipment, fungicides control and method for developing Golf course not insufficient details vis-à-vis each type of Plants, Ground covers, Grassing, Trees, etc. ·       Assigning the same landscape designer to develop specifications & drawings in this stage who developed concept designs in earlier design stages thus not implementing the segregation of duties concept* ·       Compromising specifications for the development of samples in collusion with vendor/contractor ·         ·           Stage 3 Activities that can adversely impact business   ·       In the tender, the landscape designer/architect includes names and brands of specific materials only for pre-identified /preferred vendors of the landscape architect in return for commission/kickback from such vendors. ·       Landscape designer/Architect recommending only a single source for many plants, ground covers, grassing, trees, planters, and plants for interior areas and thus leaving very few options with the Project materials team to negotiate prices aggressively in return for commission /kickback from such vendors. ·       Tender drawings not incorporating applicable Quality-standards or specifications for all works. ·       Inspection requirements w.r.t.  each BOQ material is not comprehensive. ·           Stage 4 Activities that can adversely impact business     Computing Softscape costs are based on thumb rules rather than on a first principal basis, such as below, leading to underestimating or overestimating project costs. ·       Estimating costs related to directly bought out BOQ inputs (such as plants, ground covers, grassing, trees, planters, and plants for interior areas) by the project team and issued to the Contractor, labor component, construction, installation, etc. for all types of Softscape ·       Estimating costs related to BOQ inputs in the scope of the Contractor including labor component, construction, installation, etc. for all types of Softscape ·       Costs w.r.t. installation of plants, ground covers, grassing, trees, planters, and other landscape material is not considered     Stage 5 Activities that can adversely impact business   ·       Horticulture consultant/landscape designer architect issuing “As-built drawings” for Softscape drawings which are aligned to earlier approved drawings by the project head but at variant vis-à-vis actual completed physical construction (in terms of approved plants, ground covers, grassing, trees, planters, and plants for interior areas materials used and their layouts/quantities, etc.)      You can read more about the 21 activities that can adversely impact business in Chapter 1 of my handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “      


Developing designer’s Competency matrix for enhancing the role of Architects, Interior Designers, and MEP designers in the Real Estate and Hospitality Industry

                                                                                                                                                  With ever-increasing expectations of the customers for excellence, growing competition, and severe pricing pressures, the demands on Building designers are significantly undergoing significant changes. From being perceived as merely technical persons, the owners and promoters of the real estate and hospitality industry expect designers to contribute significantly to help improve the profitability of the business during the design conceptualization and actual development process. This necessitated designers to develop certain skills /competencies that would enable them to deliver all-around excellence. A few important competencies that need to be acquired are compiled below for each package.1. Technical competencies (12 numbers)2. Commercial Competencies (5 numbers)3. IT/Software competencies (5 numbers)4.  Legal competencies (4 numbers)5. Leadership competencies (9 numbers)                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Suggested competency matrix for building designers                                                                                                                                                  Architects Interior designers MEP designers Technical Competencies Technical Competencies Technical Competencies 1 Basic knowledge of features (such as Physical characteristics, functional and performance parameters) of different parts /components of types of architectural buildings to be designed such as Hotels, Restaurants, hospitals, educational, residential, commercial, SEZ units, factories, offices complex, etc. 2 Requisite knowledge of best design practices applicable to Architecture function 3 Core knowledge of types of Superstructures, Sub-structures, roofing, walls, floorings, and a variety of external development areas   1 Basic knowledge of features (such as Physical attributes, characteristics, functional and performance parameters) of different parts /components of types of building interiors for rooms, restaurants, halls, kitchens, dining areas, Gyms, utility buildings, and recreation rooms.   2 Working knowledge about types of furniture, fixture, and equipment required in various buildings/areas  3 Requisite knowledge of best design practices applicable to Interior design function 4 Core knowledge of the Interior designing styles like traditional, modern, and contemporary, the inspirational vision of different types of interior spaces in different areas.     1 Basic knowledge of features (such as Physical attributes, characteristics, functional and performance parameters) of different parts /components of types of buildings such as Hotels, Restaurants, hospitals, educational, residential, commercial, SEZ units, factories, offices complex, etc. 2 Requisite knowledge of best design practices applicable to MEP function 3 Core knowledge of types of MEP packages such as: ·       Designing Electrical — external and Internal works ·       Deigning of Airconditioning -Works ·       Designing of lighting works ·       Designing plumbing and water (hot and cold) supply  works ·       Energy management works for green building ·       Firefighting works ·       Designing of lifts/elevators works ·       Designing of STP (sewerage treatment plant) works ·       Waste management works ·       Designing fuel storage and supply works ·       Designing solar energy works ·       Designing wind engineering works ·       Designing audio-visual works ·       Heating works ·       Ventilation & exhaust works ·       Acoustics works ·       Facility management works ·       Hospitality works like kitchen and laundry ·       IT infrastructure ·       Building automation And so on     3 The design process for different types of buildings, designing techniques, methods, stages of design development, etc  4 Crucial knowledge of developing Coordinated architectural designs and drawings to make these 1st time right and without any conflicts with Interior design and MEP works, thus avoiding expensive reworks. 3 The design process for different types of buildings, designing techniques, methods, stages of design development, etc  4 Crucial knowledge of developing Coordinated architectural designs and drawings to make these 1st time right and without any conflicts with architectural and MEP works, thus avoiding expensive reworks. 3 The design process for different types of buildings, designing techniques, methods, stages of design development, etc  4 Crucial knowledge of developing Coordinated architectural designs and drawings to make these 1st time right and without any conflicts with architectural and Interior design works, thus avoiding expensive reworks 5 Working knowledge of construction methods e.g. ·       Super structure-scaffolding, shuttering, roofing, etc ·       External works-site preparation, roads, services ·       Façade fabrication with Aluminium, UPVC, and Glasswork ·       Hardscape-irrigation, drainage, Golf areas ·       Softscape-Guying &planting, plants for landscape ·       And so on for each package 5 Working knowledge of construction methods e.g. ·       Wall finishes. - plaster coating, painting ·       Floor finishing -stones, tiles, carpets ·       Ceiling finishing-plaster, paint, decorative ·       False ceiling framework ·       Suspended ceiling ·       furniture, fixtures, equipment ·       Artwork of different materials ·       And so on for each package 5 Working knowledge of construction methods, Installing, and commissioning e.g. ·       Electrical works- Vacuum circuit breakers, Air circuit breakers, Cables, Panels, transformers, etc. ·       Internal electrical-laying conduits, wires, lamps and fixtures, and fittings, CCTV ·       HVAC-Air-conditioning-VRV (Variable refrigerant volume), chillers, Outdoor/indoor units ·       Heat exchangers, fan coil systems, valves, pumps ·       Ventilation works-Centrifugal fans, Jet fans, Ducting, Control systems And so on for each package 6 In-depth technical knowledge of BOQ materials (such as TMT bars, Cement/RMC, Stones, Joinery materials, wood works, steel works, Glass works, Horticulture, etc) that are used in any package that forms part of a tender such as: ·       Superstructure ·       Architect ·       Façade ·       external development ·       hardscape including waterworks ·       softscape ·       and so on    6 In-depth technical knowledge of BOQ materials that are part of any package that forms part of a tender such as: ·       Finishing materials (such as marbles, tiles, wooden flooring, wallcoverings, paints, claddings, fabrics, and linens ·       Furniture, fixtures, and equipment, ·       Artwork, ·       Plants & shrubs for interiors ·       and so on      6 In-depth technical knowledge of BOQ materials that are part of any package & to be part of a tender such as Electrical, Heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, acoustics, VAC, Plumbing, firefighting, lighting, energy management, lifts/elevators, Sewage treatment plants, fuel storage systems, solar energy works, wind engineering, audio visual, facility management, kitchen, laundry, IT infrastructure, building 7 Basic knowledge of modern designing methods techniques/software tools to enhance Architectural design efficiency   7 Basic knowledge of modern designing methods techniques/software tools to enhance interior design efficiency   7 Basic knowledge of modern designing methods techniques/software tools to enhance interior design efficiency   8 Vital knowledge of building design -quality in the design of Architecture works   9 Basic knowledge of Construction methods   10 Basic knowledge Inspection methods of each BOQ material & package/building as a whole   8 Vital knowledge of building design -quality in the Interior design works   9 Basic knowledge of construction methods   10 Basic knowledge Inspection methods of each BOQ material & package/building as a whole   8 Vital knowledge of building design -quality in the MEP works   9 Basic knowledge of installation, commissioning, and testing methods of MEP equipment 10 Basic knowledge Inspection methods of each BOQ material & package/building as a whole   11 Core Knowledge of Quality standards applicable to complete Architectural building and individual packages   11 Core Knowledge of Quality standards applicable to complete Interiors works and individual packages 11 Core Knowledge of Quality standards applicable to complete Integrated packages for building as a whole and individual packages 12 Necessary knowledge of Measuring Instruments used in/for: ·       Surveying -Theodolite, Universal machine, Total station Pipe & level locators, construction calculators ·       Laboratory—Glassware, pipettes, moisture meter, density meter, autoclave, mixer, ·       Metrology-height gauge precision levels, And so on 12 Necessary knowledge of Measuring Instruments used in/for: ·       Metrology- Callipers, micrometers ·       Level-Level gauges ·       Flow-flowmeter And so on 12 Necessary knowledge of Measuring Instruments used in/for: ·       Electrical -multimeter, voltmeter, energy meter ·       Sound- decibel meter, noise analyser ·       Speed-Tachometer ·       Temperature-Temperature sensors           Commercial Competencies                         Commercial Competencies                     Commercial Competencies 1 Rate and fee /commercial terms negotiation skills for procuring samples or consultancy works   2 Cost estimation skills vis a vis each package such as Structure, Architecture, Façade, Landscape, and so on   3 Developing Budget parameters   4 Ability to generate reports/MIS from software/ERP and analyze vis a vis Budget.   5 Evolving coding schemes for BOQ etc 1 Rate and fee /commercial terms negotiation skills for procuring samples or  consultancy works   2 Cost estimation skills vis a vis each package such as Finishing, FFE, Artwork , and so on  for each package   3 Developing Budget parameters   4 Ability to generate reports/MIS from software/ERP and analyze vis a vis Budget.   5 Evolving coding schemes for BOQ etc 1 Rate and fee /commercial terms negotiation skills for procuring samples or small consultancy works 2 Cost estimation skills vis a vis each package such as: ·       Electrical works ·       HVAC ·       Plumbing  And so on  3 Developing Budget parameters   4 Ability to generate reports/MIS from software/ERP and analyze vis a vis Budget. 5 Evolving coding schemes for BOQ etc                IT /software Competencies                                     IT /software Competencies                    IT /software Competencies 1 Working Knowledge of various Design software solutions for core designing of each type of package such as below: ·       STADD, ETAB, ·       AutoCAD, ·       Revit Architecture (BIM), ·       3D Studio Max, Photoshop, ·       Fenestra, Autodesk Revit, ·       Idea spectrum Realtime landscape pro, NCH software dream plan, smart draw, and so on 2 Basic Knowledge of MS office   3 Ability to conceptualize and develop structure & parameters for various master data tables like: i)Drawings specifications -Packages in Civil works,    ii)Scope of work master -Civil works packages       4 Ability to conceptualize templates and provide Architectural related meaningful inputs to IT/ERP/software teams for digitalization of the following: i)configuration & Master data tables ii) configuration tables iii)risk assessment templates iv) Segregation of duties and access rights templates v) coding schemes vi) user traceability reports vii) audit trail reports viii) Budgets ix)MIS/Dashboards x)SOP (Standard operating procedures) xi) Design & drawings document management xi) KPI (Key performance indicators)   5 Ability to generate important reports from databases /Dashboard related to Architecture function and analyze these for enhancing productivity and reduce cycle time for design & development 1 Working Knowledge of various Design software solutions for core designing of each type of package such as below: ·       Pro’s modeling suite Max, ·       AutoCAD, ·       Autodesk Revit, Autodesk 3d’s, ·       SketchUp Photoshop, and so on.       2 Basic Knowledge of MS office   3 Ability to conceptualize and develop structure & parameters for various master data tables like: Ability to configure various masters’ data tables like i)Drawings specifications -Packages in Interior design  works,    ii)Scope of work master -Packages in Interior design works  4 Ability to conceptualize templates and provide Architectural related meaningful inputs to T/ERP/software teams for digitalization of the following: i)configuration & Master data tables ii) configuration tables iii)risk assessment templates iv) Segregation of duties and access rights templates v) coding schemes vi) user traceability reports vii) audit trail reports viii) Budgets ix)MIS/Dashboards x)SOP (Standard operating procedures) xi) Design & drawings document management xi) KPI (Key performance indicators) 5 Ability to generate important reports from databases /Dashboard related to Interior design function and analyze these for enhancing productivity and reduce cycle time for design & development       1 Working Knowledge of various Design software solutions for core designing of each type of package such as below: ·       AutoCAD Electrical, ·       Smart Draw ·       Autodesk ·       Ansys ·       Quick Allot, ·        Revit MEP ·       AutoCAD HVAC  and so on ·       Knowledge of MS office   3 Ability to conceptualize and develop structure & parameters for various master data tables like: i)Drawings specifications -Packages in MEP   works,    ii)Scope of work master -Packages in MEP packages   4 Ability to conceptualize templates and provide Architectural related meaningful inputs to T/ERP/software teams for digitalization of the following: i)configuration & Master data tables ii) configuration tables iii)risk assessment templates iv) Segregation of duties and access rights templates v) coding schemes vi) user traceability reports vii) audit trail reports viii) Budgets ix)MIS/Dashboards x)SOP (Standard operating procedures) xi) Design & drawings document management xi) KPI (Key performance indicators 5 Ability to generate important reports from databases /Dashboard related to MEP design function and analyze these for enhancing productivity and reduce cycle time for design & development                               Legal  Competencies                               Legal Competencies                        Legal Competencies 1 Deep knowledge of technical aspects vis a vis relevant laws applicable to Architecture function such as below but not limited to: ·       The RERA-real estate regulation & development act 2017 ·       The national building Codes,2016 ·       The Forest Conservation Act,1980 ·       The Patent act 1970 ·       The National Green Tribunal Act 2010 ·       The Central Goods and services tax Act 2017 And so on .         2 Deep knowledge of local regulations related to Architecture function such as below but not limited to:   ·       Urban planning& development ·       Town & country planning laws ·       Applicable standards of GBC-Green building council ·        Applicable standards of LEED (leadership in energy & environment) 3 Familiarity with relevant IS & International standards   4 Essential knowledge of Standards related to Health & Safety, vis a vis Architecture packages   1 Deep knowledge of technical aspects vis a vis relevant laws applicable to Interior design function such as below but not limited to:   ·       The national building Codes,2016 ·       The Central Goods and Services Tax Act 2017 And so on                   2 Deep knowledge of local regulations related to Interior design functions such as below but not limited to:   ·       National Building code,2016-sections Relevant Aspects related to Fire & safety, Building materials, etc.     3 Familiarity with relevant IS & International standards   4 Essential knowledge of Standards related to Health & Safety, vis a vis Interior design packages   1 Deep knowledge of technical aspects vis a vis relevant laws applicable to IMEP design   function such as below but not limited to:   ·       The electricity act 2003 ·       The Air (prevention &control of pollution) act,1987 ·       The Water (prevention &control of pollution) act,1987 ·       The environment (protection)act 1986 ·       The petroleum act 1934 ·       The RERA-real estate regulation & development act 2017 ·       The National Green Tribunal Act 2010 ·       The Central Goods and Services Tax Act 2017   2 Deep knowledge of local regulations related to MEP design function such as below but not limited to:   ·       National Building code,2016-sections related to building services like lighting, electrical, air conditioning, acoustics, sound insulation, noise control, lifts, escalators, travellators, plumbing (water supply, drainage & sanitation, solid waste management, gas supply), landscape, signages, etc. ·       Applicable standards of GBC-Green building council ·        Applicable standards of LEED (leadership in energy & environment) 3 Familiarity with relevant IS & International standards   4 Essential knowledge of Standards related to Health & Safety, vis a vis MEP design packages                                        Leadership  Competencies                                   Leadership  Competencies                       Leadership  Competencies 1 Ethical frame of mind  2 Team management 3 Team development and training 4 Empowerments  5 Alignment with organization objectives 6 Quality of work 7 Efficiency and Effectiveness 8 Analytical 9 Change management 10 Benchmarking of competitor’s design features in various packages     1 Ethical frame of mind  2 Team management 3 Team development and training 4 Empowerments  5 Alignment with organization objectives 6 Quality of work 7 Efficiency and Effectiveness 8 Analytical 9 Change management 10 Benchmarking of competitor’s design features in various packages     1 Ethical frame of mind  2 Team management 3 Team development and training 4 Empowerments  5 Alignment with organization objectives 6 Quality of work 7 Efficiency and Effectiveness 8 Analytical 9 Change management 10 Benchmarking of competitor’s design features in various packages         WAY FORWARDThe acquisition of 36 competencies listed above in each design function can enable designers to play a larger for aligning with the organization’s objectives and thus play an important role in improving the performance of the organization and enhancing profitability. Architects, Interior Designers, and MEP designers, therefore, need to do following in their respective areas of responsibilities 1.       Continuous enhancement of the skills mentioned above in the competencies mentioned above 2.      Identifying and engaging high-quality, professionally qualified, and competent designers/consultants where in-house skills are not yet available or resources are not adequate. 3.      Finding and implementing best design practices thus bringing excellence in their respective design processes and accomplishing the following:·       Enhancing quality of designs·       Supporting improved quality of construction·       Reducing Project costs·       Increasing sales revenue·       Improving end-customer satisfaction index·       Complying with statutory conformances ·       Accelerating design efficiency and design effectiveness 4.      Developing and implementing performance management systems (for designers) based on documented KPI-key performance indicators    Handbook of the author  In June 2022, the author launched a handbook titled “ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “. Readers will find a comprehensive reflection of the above competencies in the contents of Chapters 1,2,3.     


Design of HVAC works (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning works - Activities that can adversely impact business -

As shared in an earlier MEP Electrical works design   blog, there are many MEP Packages such as:·       Design of Electrical - external and Internal works, Designing of Airconditioning -Works, Design of lighting works, Design of plumbing and water (hot and cold) supply works, Energy management works for green building, firefighting works, Designing of lifts/elevators works, Design of STP (sewerage treatment plant) works, Waste management works, Design of fuel storage and supply works, Design of solar energy works, Design of wind engineering works, Design of audio-visual works, Heating works, Ventilation & exhaust works, Acoustics works, Facility management works, Hospitality works like kitchen and laundry, IT infrastructure, Building automation, and so on This blog covers the Design of Air conditioning & basement ventilation works  This Design can be relevant for buildings used for residential, commercial, shopping malls, education institutes, hotels, hospitals, offices, etc. Characteristics of a Robust Airconditioning and robust ventilation Design works can be measured vis a vis: Robust Airconditioning ·       Optimum usage of energy-saving BOQ materials and systems for Air-conditioning (eg. Chillers, VRV, Outdoor units/indoor units, low power consumption units, etc.) ·       BOQ, refringent, and the entire Airconditioning system that conforms to local Quality standards and preferably international quality standards such as ASHRAE (American society of heating, refrigeration & Airconditioning) ·       Layout schemes designed for cold air supply distribution system, coils     that are optimum and are concealed   ·       Coming up with designs that are eco-friendly and sustainable energy ·       Configuring the Design of Airconditioning BOQ, their installation, and commissioning that ensure conformance of integrated system to meet statutory requirements  ·       Integrated building management systemsRobust Basement ventilation  ·       Ability to extract and push out polluted air and introduce the same volume of fresh air at an hourly rate ·       Ability to condition the air to an acceptable usage level of quality that is comfortable ·       Meeting the statutory levels in terms of air quality levels (e.g. carbon mono oxide) within statutory levels.·       Preferably meeting ASHRAE (American society of heating, refrigeration & Airconditioning) standards for the exchange of air in terms of cfm-cubic feet per hour with new or clean air. ·       Eliminating potential bacteria, microbes that cause respiratory issues or sinus problems  Common aspects of a Robust air- conditioning and basement ventilation system Design schemes that enable installation & commissioning of equipment with optimised capacity ·       Design arrangements that enable easy maintainability ·       Incorporate flexibility in the Design to meet challenges towards potential changes in technology or energy savings or costs   ·       Coming up with design solutions that are scalable /expandable ·       Approving specifications/brands of BOQ that enable the least downtime  ·       Approving designs that lay focus on the total cost of ownership including running costs ·       Delivering specifications and drawings that are easy to understand and incorporate international standards      Inputs that contribute to making an excellent Electrical design include:1.      Proposing the right choice of strong materials, in terms of specifications while       optimizing costs for:    Types of materials for use Key specifications of building materials (as required by customers and National/international Quality standards) i) Airconditioning designs   VRV Make, Brand, Tonnage, Inverter Technology, star rating, refrigerant, (For chiller-British thermal units /hour or a ton of refrigeration /hour Outdoor and Indoor units Size, make, colour, filter type/size, Compressor Cfm (cubic feet per minute and horsepower condenser coils Tube material, tube diameter, thickness, temperature, vapor density, environment friendliness Instrumentation, and remote controls Pressures and temperatures ranges Refrigerants Freezing temperature, evaporation pressure, condensation pressure. And so on   basement ventilation     Centrifugal fans Make, brand, Fan Model, Size/diameter, CFM, Static Pressure (SP), and Loudness Limit. Jet fans Make, brand, Model, Size/diameter, Thrust in Newton, no of speed steps MS Conduits Make, brand, Model, Gauge of the sheet, diameter  Diffusers- Aluminum, steel plastic Make, brand, Model Size, throw pattern (2,3,4 way or 360 degrees), etc   Grill   Make, brand, Model Size, Nominal sizes,  Volume flow rate as Cubic feet /hour. And so on    2 Incorporating, in HVAC-related Design & drawings, good practices for construction or & installation of the following as per applicable Quality standards:i) Airconditioning§  Installation of VRV or outdoor units, indoor units. §  Central refrigeration plant, chillers§  Distribution pipelines§  Cooling towers§  Air handling units§  Grills, fans, filters &Fan coil units§  Fabricating and laying of ducting, copper pipes,§  Installing pipe insulations, control cables, v joints §  Filling of refrigerants §  Installation, testing, and commissioning of complete AC system§  Installation of local cooling unitsii)basement ventilation §  Fabrication of ducting & its installation §  Installation of MS conduits, pressurization system, grills, diffusers, etc§  Installation of fresh air fans, exhaust fans, propeller fans, air washers, pressure fans,§  Installation of cable layouts and terminations, distribution panels§  Installation, testing, and commissioning of the completed Basement Ventilation system iii)Providing inputs to the building architects,  Interior designers, and all other MEP-package designers for integration of all designs across the project     3 Building quality in the MEP-HVAC design process-using designing software:Essential technical steps/activities include performing the following for developing designs.Design calculations for determining capacity for the Airconditioning & basement ventilation systems for the project include: Air-conditioning  ·       Cooling load computation ·       Cool air distribution scheme ·       Incorporating installation, testing, and commissioning aspects and following local and international quality standards like ASHRAE (American Society for heating, refrigeration, and Airconditioning) and National building code, BIS, National building code, etc. ·       Including detailed 3D BIM Modelling Services with HVAC with BOQ depicted, ·       Develop airconditioning works related to shop drawings ·       Designs supporting all applicable quality standards  ii) Basement ventilation ·       CFM and sizing calculations·       Pressure loss calculations·       Duct and diffuser layouts·       Duct construction standardsSoftware like Revit MEP, AutoCAD HVAC, Quick Allot, or similar ones with 3D MEP BIM modeling features can be considered for developing design airconditioning and basement ventilation works.  Eight stages for developing the Design of Air-conditioning and basement ventilation Design activities vary considerably from company to company, but generally, there are eight stages to designing the MEP-HVAC for buildings, as below. Whatever designing processes and software are used, designing must result in developing Robust designs by accomplishing the following:·       Build designs that are comprehensive, accurate·       Contributes to building quality in construction by incorporating national and international quality standards in BOQ/material specifications and construction processes·       Integrates statutory and safety requirements (if applicable) in the designs and drawings  ·       Optimise project costs·       Enables efficient delivery of designs & drawings ·       Incorporates maker-checker step in each design stage through the implementation   of segregation of duties concept 8 Stages are:Stage 1) Develop a preliminary design brief and drawings Stage 2) Detailed design /drawings /specifications and schemeStage 3) Develop schematic drawings for statutory approvalsStage 4) Develop tender with BOQ and specificationsStage 5) Making constructions drawings duly coordinated (GFC)-Design and drawings for HVAC works: (Stage 6) Perform final Design calculations  Stage 7) Making Cost estimates -For the entire project including in Rs and Cost/Sft. of the saleable area or built-up area or both Stage 8) Issue “As-built drawing”-post-work completion and approval This may require using software such as Quick Allot, Revit MEP, AutoCAD HVAC, and other software options.In the below-listed activities, those marked *reflect those activities which can have adverse statutory implications. Stage 1 Activities that can adversely impact business ·       Strategic plans for Design not aligned with visions ·       Developing non-comprehensive design brief (vis a vis cooling  load, air circulation requirements, etc.)·       Skipping developing all preliminary designs    Stage 2 Activities that can adversely impact business  ·       Making Compromises in the airconditioning and basement ventilation designs by skipping or compromising on essential aspects such as below. i)Design features vis a vis Heating works, Heat exchangers, Fan coil systems, Reverse cycle heating system, Distribution pipelines, Valves, Pumps, Fittings, Instrumentation and control, Local heating units, Chillers, VRV, Outdoor units, Indoor units, Centrifugal fans, jet fans, Ventilation, air conditioning, pipes, insulations, etc                     ii) National and international standards for quality     iii) Specifications of   BOQ material          iv) Tolerances on workmanship vis a vis installation and commissioning·       Not incorporating comprehensive Quality requirements ·       Not considering comprehensive Design-related construction processes for HVAC works ·       Design without considering standardization leading to higher costs ·       Inaccurate Bill of quantities for each design area /no off of HVAC package items      ·       Not factoring in acceptance criteria for HVAC design work in process and completed area ·       MEP designer or consultant Insisting on specific brands of BOQ such as heat exchangers, valves, pumps for the Heating system, centrifugal pumps, jet pumps for the ventilation system and chillers, Outdoor units, indoor units of Air conditioners, etc. in collusion with vendors of specific brands of BOQ items and getting financial favors. *  ·        ·       Assigning the same designer to develop designs, drawings schematic designs & drawings, who initially developed concept design thus not implementing the segregation of duties concept*·       Compromising specifications for the development of samples of HVAC materials in collusion with vendor/contractor. *   ·       Using unlicensed software while developing HVAC designs. *   ·       Issuing of Design and drawings to HVAC contractor at project site without any version control ·       Not shredding waste designs/drawings or not deleting obsolete /old soft drawings* Stage 3 Activities that can adversely impact business  ·       Not incorporating all requirements vis a vis Statutory approval and design/drawings*·       Bribing mandatory Agencies which approve the safety-related specifications of HVAC design works relevant for safety, e.g. fume extraction, insulations, etc* ·       Contractors influence certifying agencies for making compromising on certification in return for favours. *·       Assigning the same designer to develop schematic designs and statutory drawings, who initially developed concept design or schematic designs thus not implementing the segregation of duties concept*·        Stage 4 Activities that can adversely impact business ·       Making tenders that are not comprehensive vis-à-vis technical specifications or are deliberately stated vaguely for subsequent manipulations amongst the MEP team members and contractor with ulterior motives. *  ·       In the tender, the MEP consultant/employees /engineers include names and brands of specific materials only for pre-identified /preferred vendors of the BOQ materials + MEP Engineer in return for commission/kickback from such vendors. * ·       MEP engineer recommends only a single source for many BOQ materials and thus leaving very few options with the project materials team to negotiate prices aggressively in return for commission /kickback to the MEP team from such vendors. ·       Tender drawings not incorporating applicable quality standards for all works. ·       Inspection requirements w.r.t. Airconditioning, basement ventilation works, etc., are not comprehensive.·        ·       Tender drawings not incorporating applicable Statutory requirements vis-à-vis applicable National/International codes w.r.t safety. *  Stage 5 Activities that can adversely impact business  ·       Making constructions drawings inaccurate by not obtaining or not incorporating inputs from functions into various design elements for HVAC plans ·       Preparing coordinated drawings for each of relevant HVAC works scope items vis designs and drawings without factoring inputs from Architect team, Interior design team ·       Using unlicensed software while developing HVAC drawings  Stage 6 Activities that can adversely impact business ·       Validating designs without proper incorporation of all proposed connected heat load, air circulation, and air conditioning at different progressive loads or estimated occupancy of constructed areas or pro-rata over a period   ·       Considering the inaccurate proposed factor of safety & proposed statutory approvals *  ·       Inadequate vetting of design efficacy and drawings developed vis-à-vis specification of BOQ materials and installation requirements. Stage 7 Activities that can adversely impact business ·       Estimating costs based on thumb rules rather than considering detailed working vis a vis each BOQ item and their quantities                 Air-conditioning Chillers or VRV, Outdoor units, Indoor units, Valves, Pumps, cablings/wirings, Fittings, Instrumentation, and remote controls, Refrigerants, air filters, air conditioning pipes, drainage pipes insulations, etc Basement ventilation Centrifugal fans, jet fans, Ventilation, motors, cables, Ducting, Distribution pipelines, fittings, etc  ·       Not considering installation, testing, and commissioning costs Stage 8 Activities that can adversely impact business  ·       Making “As-built drawings” designs and drawings without verification of actual supply and installation of each BOQ material for airconditioning works and basement ventilation works *     You can read more about the 34 activities that can adversely impact business in Chapter 1 of my handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “    


Risk assessments: - At the organization level- Design Functions- Design of Architect, Interior designing, and Design of MEP

   Activities for Risk assessment The ultimate objective of risk assessment in design functions is to identify such risk occurrences, analyse these, and initiate countermeasures for preventing risks.The activities include i. Designate Risks Assessment team (CFT-Cross-functional team)ii. Identify aspects that can contribute to organization-level risk mentioned iii. Design risk assessment templates for the organization-level risk. iv. Software programming of risk templates.  v. Populating the “organization level Risks” template by the design functions in consultation with CFT 1.1 Organisation-level risks – Developing risk assessment templates  The design of the risk template ought to be comprehensive and should capture the following in a document. i)Risk statements developed by each Head of Department-HOD of the design functions i. e. Chief Architect or & Chief Interior designer or & Chief MEP engineer as applicable vis a vis the aspects such as:·       End customer’s changing needs  ·       Competitor’s offerings ·       Statutory policies·       Changes in economic, political, and social environments·       IT (Hardware, software, network) outages impacting design delivery, etc. ii) Thereafter, each risk statement is to be analyzed to capture the likely adverse impact of each risk on the organization  iii) After analysis of impact, HODs need to capture (in the same template) countermeasures, Timelines for implementation & responsibility for implementing countermeasures. This may require dialoguing/interfacing with HOD of other functions like sales, projects, purchases, and contracts, Finance & legal, IT, etc. iv) Top management comments on risk impact and countermeasures identified in the template. iii)Accordingly, categorizing the risk as High or medium, or low  1.2 Activities that can adversely impact business§  Inappropriate levels /positions of CFT members vis-à-vis “Design functions” and consequent inadequate skills for comprehending organization risks    §  Inadequate participation by a nominated member of “Design functions”             in deliberation meetings of CFT for identifying organization risks. §  Inappropriate software development and workflow of “organization level risks” template (standard for all functions) making risk capturing cumbersome and inefficient  §  Non-comprehensive review by CFT of all aspects vis-à-vis “Design functions -” that can contribute to Organisation risks in the Risk template resulting in inaccurate/non-comprehensive capturing of the following: * §  Risk statements §  Risk Analysis and implications·       Inaccurate classification by CFT of risk at the organization level (High, Medium, or Low) vis-à-vis “Design functions” due to improper risk analysis and implications *·       Inadequate time commitment by top management to review Risk template developed by CFT vis-à-vis “Design functions” and hence non-comprehensive or not accurate capturing of countermeasures *·       Non-periodic/non-timely review of previously populated risk template in “Design functions to incorporate changes in business environments like customer demands, statutory changes, economy changes, and so on *The above-listed activities, that are marked* reflect activities that can have adverse statutory implications.  Handbook of the author  You can read more about the 35 activities that can adversely impact business in Chapter 1 of my handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “   Handbook of the author   A template illustrating an approach for classifying risks as High, Medium, or Low at the organization level is included in chapter 10 (annex 13C) in the handbook of the author and titled” ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “  


Designing of Facade - Activities that can adversely impact businesses

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Design activities include design work for facades of all types, such as: ·       Aluminium ·       UPVC Glazing ·       Brickwork, and stonework ·       Tiles and stone veneer panels ·       Pre-cast concrete panels ·        Metallic cladding ·       And so on Characteristics of a Robust Façade Design: ·       Uniqueness of building envelop ‘s style to grab attention ·       Energy saving cost reduction ·       Overall project costs for facade ·       Provision of vertical & lateral wind actions ·       Optimum design performance of Façade vis a vis: ·       Eliminate water ingress ·        Ensure airtightness to prevent heat or cooling loss ·        Configure acoustic insulation to reduce noise ·        Thermal insulation designed to reduce the overall amount of heat absorption due to solar radiations ·       Provide adequate daylight while preventing glare ·       Carbon neutral design ·       Fire resistance ·       Ability to withstand excessive vibrations ·       Ability to withstand changes in the frequency of sound & Noise control ·       Prevent looseness of fasteners ·       Inside occupant’s comforts ·       Incorporate features of the façade cleaning system ·       Ensure meeting safety and statutory requirements ·       Easy maintainability of the cleaning system And so on Inputs that contribute to making a good Façade design include: 1.      Proposing the right choice of strong materials, in terms of specifications while        optimizing costs:     Types of materials for use in Façade Panels Key specifications of building materials (as required by customers and National/international Quality standards) Glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) Thickness, density, unit weight, compression strength, tensile strength, porosity, moisture content, water tightness, moisture content, coefficient of thermal expansion, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity and Colour, texture, surface type/shape, size, width, Steel reinforced Concrete façade (RC) Thickness, density, unit weight, compression strength, tensile strength, porosity, moisture content, water tightness, moisture content, coefficient of thermal expansion, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC)  As above Composite façade (Aluminium -polyethylene composite or wood plastic composite panel) As above Terra cotta cladding tiles As above Ceramic Façade Hardness, modulus of elasticity, ductility, wear resistance, resistance to chemicals, and so Timber Façade size, colour, luster, grains, content, hardness, density, shear resistance, and so on Natural stone Façade colour, hardness, grain size, texture, polish ability, chemical properties, and so on Door/window hardware (Aluminium, Stainless steel, Make, brand, aesthetic and style, size, colour, coating, surface finish, Sealants (silicon rubber, Waterproofing, insulation, resistance to extreme temperature, UV resistance withstanding temperature, colour retention, strength, shrinkage and crack resistance, etc Maintenance equipment Make, brand, model, performance, size, safety And so on   ,     2 Incorporating, in façade-related design & drawings, good practices for construction or & installation of the following as per applicable Quality standards: ·       Fabrication of aluminium or UPVC or alternate materials for use as panels · Install various types of panels for façade as mentioned above, such as GFRC, RC, UHPC, composite façade, terracotta, natural stone, etc.   · Install glassworks/glazing, hardware, and maintenance system for façade.  ·       Application & testing of sealants on façade for acoustics, water & air leakage, and inside temperature control ·       Installation, testing, and commissioning  of specialized façade systems ·       Installation, and testing of a façade cleaning system with safety considerations ·       Providing inputs to the building architects, Interior designers, and  MEP-package designers for integration of all designs across the project               3 Building quality in the designing process for Façade -using designing software: ·       Essential technical steps/activities include performing the following for developing designs.   ·       Analysis of Solar movement and shading analysis ·       Daylight planning ·       Energy reduction ·       Solar heat gain and thermal analysis ·       Carbon neutral designs ·       Glazing selection ·       Façade envelop geometry. ·       Fabrication & assembly of façade system Software like Fennesta, Autodesk Revit, AutoCAD, ETAB, or similar ones having features to carry out design analysis can be considered for developing Facade works related to designs. Five stages for developing the design of Façade    Design activities vary considerably from company to company, but generally, there are five stages to designing the Façade  for buildings, as below. Whatever designing processes and software are used, designing must result in developing Robust designs by accomplishing the following: ·       Build designs that are comprehensive, accurate ·       Contributes to building quality in construction by incorporating national and international quality standards in BOQ/material specifications and construction processes ·       Integrates statutory and safety requirements in the designs and drawings   ·       Optimise project costs ·       Enables efficient delivery of designs & drawings ·       Incorporates maker-checker step in each design stage through the implementation   of segregation of duties concept   The five stages are: ·       1 Develop Concept designs ·       2 Develop a Detailed design ·       3 Develop Tenders (Technical design aspects ·       4 Estimating Costs ·       5 Issuing As-built drawing   The below-listed activities, those marked *reflect those activities which can have adverse statutory implications.   Stage 1 activities that can adversely impact business   ·       Not obtaining or not incorporating inputs (like Building Envelop, Building statutory codes, the performance of façade, Construction methods for proposed façade, Maintenance of façade, Renderings for sales promotion, cleaning system for façade) from Architect, MEP, sales teams’ functions into Building Façade design ·       Using unlicensed software while developing a concept design for Façade. ·       Not vetting the concept and detailed design/making compromise while vetting Façade, in collaboration with, inhouse or outsourced Façade consultant, by skipping or compromising on essential design features and drawings aspects such as below.         ·       Tolerances on material specifications and Workmanship ·        Statutory code-related requirements for Façade *   ·       National and international standards for quality     ·        Raw Materials (hardware, glazing, stones, claddings, etc.) sizes, and specifications ·       Quality requirements and suggestive gauging ·       Façade safety requirements *    ·       Compromising on the safety of the Façade by proposing low cost /low strength raw materials   ·       Bribing mandatory Agencies which approve the Façade. relevant for issuing compliance*   Stage 2 activities that can adversely impact business   ·       The design intent is not aligned with the approved concept design. ·       Façade detailed drawings are not comprehensive to include structural integrity, material selection, acoustics, etc. or are not accurate ·       Assigning the same designer to develop schematic designs & drawings, who initially developed concept design thus not implementing the segregation of duties concept*   ·       Detailed design not based on supporting calculations/formula related to thermal movements, edge beam deflection, thermal expansion, structural calculations, and fire protection leading to façade safety issues*     Stage 3 activities that can adversely impact business   ·       In the tender, the Façade designer includes names and brands of specific materials only for pre-identified /preferred vendors of the Façade designer in return for commission/kickback from such vendors. ·       Façade designer recommends only a single source for many BOQ materials and thus leaving very few options with the project materials team to negotiate prices aggressively in return for commission/kickback from such vendors. * ·       Tender drawings do not incorporate applicable quality standards for all BOQ and façade fabrication, installation and assembly works. ·       Inspection requirements w.r.t. façade works like aluminum and glass, doors, hardware, stones, etc., are not comprehensive. ·       Tender drawings not incorporating applicable statutory requirements vis-a-vis applicable national/international codes w.r.t safety. *     Stage 4 activities that can adversely impact business     Computing Façade costs based on thumb rules rather than on the first principal basis vis-à-vis following, leading to underestimating or overestimating project costs. Costs of raw materials like Aluminium or UPVC or civil materials ·       Costs of doors and handles ·       Costs of hardware ·       Costs of consumables ·       Costs of equipment for cleaning /maintenance of Façade ·       Costs of fabrication ·       Costs of labor etc. ·       Costs of installation, testing, and commissioning   Stage 5 activities that can adversely impact business      ·       Façade designer issuing “As-built drawings” for the Façade which are aligned to earlier approved drawings by Project head and statutory authorities (if applicable) but at variant, vis-à-vis actual completed physical construction (in terms of approved façade plans and construction materials used, etc.) *     You can read more about the 20 activities that can adversely impact business in Chapter 1 of my handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “      


Ensuring Statutory conformances by Architects during designing process

For the 13 key functions applicable to the real estate & hospitality industry In India, 82 statutory Acts are applicable, as summarised below.·       48 Statutory Acts are directly applicable (included in Annex 8 of the handbook)·       34 Acts are indirectly applicable through supporting functions like corporate finance, Corporate Services, HR, etc. (included in Annex 9 of the handbook) Further local regulations, as below, are also applicable & Architects can add more.·       Urban planning and development related·       Town and country planning laws.Further, for all 13 functions, eight types of statutory processes having 113 key statutory activities have been identified as applicable in the Indian context.These 113 activities are listed vis a vis the following statutory Acts in annex 21B in the handbook·       The RERA-Real Estate (Regulation & Development) Act 2016·       The building & other construction workers (regulation of employment &conditions of service) Act 1996 ·       The income tax Act,1961·       The SEZ Act 2005 &SEZ rules 2006·       The foreign exchange management act,1999(FEMA)·       The Goods and service tax Act,2017·       The Companies Act,2013·       The SEBI Act 1992 (clause 49)’ SEBI listing regulations 2015·       The payment of wages Act,1936·       The minimum wages Act, 1948 ·       The PF miscellaneous provisions Act 1952·       The employee state insurance (ESI) Act,1948 & (amendment) 1989·       The Contract labor (regulation)and abolition Act,1970·       The Payment of Bonus Act,1965·       The Maternity Benefit Act,1961·       The apprenticeship Act 1961·       The employment exchange Act 1959For Design of Architect functions, five types of statutory activities (out of 8) are relevant, having 37 key activities (out of 113) to be performed, as summarised below. ·       Meeting RERA Compliances =4 ·       Meeting statutory regulations and taxation obligations =2·       Obtaining Licenses, approvals, and maintaining statutory records w.r.t Statutory Acts =24·       Complying with IGST matters =4·       Deducting Income tax on services-TDS =3The list of 37 activities mentioned above is given in chapter 1 of the book along with codes and narrated in annex 21BIt is pertinent to note that the Central Government /statutory authorities, at their discretion, may amend the applicability of statutory laws or various sections as mentioned in this blog. Therefore, the applicable sections are to be read as amended from time to time.Given below is the list of 18 activities that can adversely impact business is as below (if these are performed without proper diligence or are unethical) Statutory Process 1: Meeting RERA Compliances related = four key activities that can adversely impact organisation ·       Commence construction without obtaining sanction plan approvals from competent authorities     ·       Obtain “certificate for adherence to statutory/approved sanctioned plans and project specifications and National Building code” through unfair means in case actual construction does not comply with sanctioned plans     ·       Submit inaccurate deed of declaration tabulating unit-wise areas constructed and bribing statutory agencies     ·       Bribe statutory agencies for obtaining a “completion certificate” even before construction is complete by duping customers and realizing payments through construction areas not yet ready for possession.      Statutory Process 2: Meeting statutory regulations and tax obligations and filing various key returns on the scheduled time = 4 key activities that can adversely impact organisation  ·       Publish inaccurately on the website project details vis-à-vis units booked, units under construction, list of approvals taken and pending, and the status of the project as prescribed in the RERA-Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act 2016  ·       Inaccurate capture of details vis-à-vis summary return of outward and inward supplies and services along with payment of tax compliance in respect of The Central Goods and Service Tax Act,2017.  ·       File returns inaccurately ·       File returns non-timely   Statutory Process 3: Obtaining Licenses, approvals, and maintaining statutory records w.r.t Acts = four key activities that can adversely impact organisation  ·       Commence and Continue construction without obtaining approvals/renewals as one or more ·       Not complying with prescribed statutory procedures and bribing Statutory officials to obtain such licenses /approvals. ·       Bribe the statutory inspectors during their visits to the construction site to validate those constructions conforms to statutory approvals ·       Not maintain or maintain and submit inaccurate statutory records and bribe visiting Statutory officials.  Statutory Process 4: Complying with IGST matters = five key activities that can adversely impact organisation ·       Maintain record vis-à-vis inward or outward supply of local architectural services or inward supply of BOQ sample materials procured which are either incomplete or incorrect vis-à-vis amounts chargeable to GST or rate of GST or both   ·       Maintain incomplete or incorrect records vis-à-vis inward supply of overseas consultant services or inward imported supply of BOQ sample materials procured from vendors  ·       Not comply with requirements w. r. t. GST payable, collected, paid, and ITC availed under GST rules for local consultants.In case of overseas consultancy services received, incorrect computation of chargeable gross invoice amount on which GST is applicable (based on the availability or non-availability of PAN with overseas consultant entity and overseas consultant’s annual billing amount to us as a client). ·       Not-Comply with requirements w. r. t maintaining details of suppliers and customers with their GSTN registration number   ·       File required returns non-timely vis-à-vis applicable sections of the Act      Statutory Process 5: Deducting TDS-services=1 key activity that can adversely impact organisation ·       Deduction of TDS (Tax deduction at source as per Income Tax Act,1961) at a rate different than prescribed.   Handbook of the author  You can read more about the 18 key activities that can adversely impact business in Chapter 1 of my handbook, “ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services.”    


Design of MEP - Electrical works - Activities that can adversely impact business

There are various types of packages under MEP services such as below, but not limited to: 1.      Design of Electrical - external and Internal works2.      Designing of Airconditioning -Works3.      Design of lighting works4.      Design of plumbing and water (hot and cold) supply works5.      Energy management works for green building,6.      Firefighting works7.      Designing of lifts/elevators works 8.      Design of STP (sewerage treatment plant) works9.      Waste management works10. Design of fuel storage and supply works 11. Design of solar energy works12. Design of wind engineering works 13. Design of audio-visual works14. Heating works15. Ventilation & exhaust works16. Acoustics works17. Facility management works18. Hospitality works like kitchen and laundry19. IT infrastructure20. Building automation, and so on This blog covers only the Design of Electrical - external and Internal works for any type of buildings used for residential, commercial, shopping malls, education institutes, hotels, hospitals, offices, etc Characteristics of a Robust Electrical Design works can be measured vis a vis: ·       Optimum usage of energy-saving BOQ materials and systems for Electricals (eg. Transformers, Solar power systems, low fuel consumption Gensets, etc.) ·      BOQ and the entire electrical system that conforms to international & local Quality standards ·      Design schemes that enable installation & commissioning of equipment with optimised capacity ·      Layout schemes designed for power supply distribution systems, cables, and wires    that are optimum and are concealed   ·      Coming up with designs that are eco-friendly and sustainable energy ·      Design arrangements that enable easy maintainability ·      Incorporate flexibility in the design to meet challenges towards potential changes in technology or energy savings or costs   ·      Coming up with design solutions that are scalable /expandable ·      Configuring the design of electrical BOQ, their installation, and commissioning that ensure conformance of integrated system to meet statutory requirements  ·      Approving specifications/brands of BOQ that enable the least downtime  ·      Approving designs that lay focus on the total cost of ownership including running costs ·       Approving designs for all types of lights, including fixtures and lamps for internal and landscape Lighting ·       ·      Delivering drawings and line diagrams that are easy to understand and incorporate international standards for symbols of electrical parts and numbering of wires and components ·      Integrated building management systemsInputs that contribute to making an excellent Electrical design include:      1 Proposing the right choice of strong materials, in terms of specifications while       optimizing costs for:    Types of materials for use Key specifications of building materials (as required by customers and National/international Quality standards) i)External electrical/High side designs   Electric substations materials (Transformers, circuit breakers, poles. Earthing, disconnect switches, cables, metering units), Capacity. Type, Make, brand, size, primary power line side statutory and safety standards Voltage class, poles sizes, high voltage cables, insulation properties, earthing  statutory  or & safety compliances. VCB-vacuum circuit breakers and their components Capacity. type of VCB, Make, brand, size, Materials with High density, high electric conductivity, low resistance, high thermal conductivity, high arc resistance capability, statutory or & safety compliances ACB-Air circuit breakers, and its components Capacity, Type of ACB, Make, brand, size Rated voltage protection, rated current protection, overload relay tripping -current settings, rated short-circuit breaking capacity, statutory or & safety compliances. Transformers with ferromagnetic steel Capacity. Core Type, Make, brand, size, High permeability, low hysteresis loss, statutory or & safety compliances Panels (circuit breakers, bus bars, PLC, relays and contractors, Steel boxes, bus bars, buttons, indicators Capacity. Type, Make, brand, size of the complete panel and its components, conductivity, earthing, statutory or & safety compliances Electrical distribution boards With switches, bus bar, circuit breakers, fuse links    Safety characteristics, overcurrent protection, space for wires, fixtures, cables, corrosion resistance, statutory or & safety compliances High tension Cables(Copper or aluminum conductors) Make, brand, size, no of cores, insulation, resistance to abrasion and wear and tear, non-corrosive, low resistance, statutory or & safety compliances Backup equipment like Diesel Generating sets, inverters, UPS, and Solar lighting panels Make, brand, KW ratings, fuel consumption (for gensets), maintenance, statutory or & safety compliances High-speed diesel/fuel storage related tanks, pipes, cooling towers, metering units,   Make, brand, capacity, firefighting capability, statutory or & safety compliances. And so on     ii)Inside electrical/low side designs Key specifications of building materials (as required by customers and National/international Quality standards) Conduits, low tension cables/wires, and accessories Make, brand, size, ratings, colours, safety compliances statutory requirements Electrical fixtures and lamps, switches, and sockets  Type, Make, brand, size, ratings, styles, finish, safety compliances, lamps-types, light intensity, light colour, etc statutory requirements CCTV, video phones, public address systems, telephones, etc. MATV (Master Antenna Television system), wi-fi Equipment Type, Make, brand, size, ratings, styles, finish, and statutory requirements. And so on     2 Incorporating, in Electrical works related to design & drawings, good practices for construction or & installation of the following as per applicable Quality standards:i)External electrical/High side designs·       Installing & commissioning sub-station equipment like ACB, VCB, etc·       Installing & commissioning HT cables, and earthing·       Installing & commissioning rising mains, metering boxes, panels ·       Installing & commissioning DG sets, Solar panels·       Installing & commissioning exhaust systems, cooling towers, etc ·       Installation, testing, and commissioning of completed high-side External electrical packageAnd so on ii)Inside electrical/low side designs ·       Laying of conduits, wires, cables, and accessories·       Installing & commissioning electrical fixtures and lamps·       Installing & commissioning access control systems like CCTV, Videophones·       Installing & commissioning metering units and public address system, telephones, etc·       Installation, testing, and commissioning of a completed low-side electrical packageAnd so on  iii)Providing inputs to the building architects, landscape and softscape architects, Interior designers, and all other MEP-package designers for integration of all designs across the project    3 Building quality in the designing MEP-Electrical design process-using designing software:Essential technical steps/activities include performing the following for developing designs.·       Computing total power loads, assessing the capacity of each type of equipment ·       Incorporating installation, testing, and commissioning aspects  ·       Including detailed 3D models depicting electrical components like entire electrical layouts with BOQ depicted, ductwork, electrical fixtures, Lighting, lamps, switches, sockets, etc.·       Circuit designs and reuse ·       Identify any inter or intra-discipline clashes ·       Develop electrical works related to shop drawings using international conventions for wires and component -numbering tags ·       Designs supporting all applicable electrical standards Software like AutoCAD Electrical, Smart Draw, Autodesk, Ansys, or similar ones having 3D MEP BIM modeling features can be considered for developing electrical works related to designs Eight stages for developing the design of Electricals    Design activities vary considerably from company to company, but generally, there are eight stages to designing the MEP-Electrical works for buildings as below. Whatever designing processes and software are used, designing must result in developing Robust designs by accomplishing the following:·       Build designs that are comprehensive, accurate·       Contributes to building quality in construction by incorporating national and international quality standards in BOQ/material specifications and construction processes·       Integrates statutory and safety requirements (if applicable) in the designs and drawings  ·       Optimise project costs·       Enables efficient delivery of designs & drawings ·       Incorporates maker-checker step in each design stage through the implementation   of segregation of duties concept  Eight stages are Stage 1 - Develop a preliminary design brief and drawings Stage 2 - Develop detailed drawings and schemes.Stage 3 - Develop schematic drawings for statutory approvalsStage 4 - Develop a Tender with BOQ and specificationsStage 5 - Develop constructions drawings duly coordinated (GFC)Stage 6 - Carry out and validation of design calculationsStage 7 - Making Cost estimates- including values in Rs and Cost/Square foot of saleable area or built up as appropriate.Stage 8 - Develop as-built design calculations and as-built drawingsThis may require using software such as AutoCAD Electrical, Smart Draw, Autodesk, Ansys, and other software options.The below-listed activities, those marked *reflect those activities which can have adverse statutory implications.  Stage 1 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Strategic plans for design not aligned with the vision ·       Develop a non-comprehensive design brief    ·       Skipping developing all preliminary designs    Stage 2 activities that can adversely impact business Making Compromises in the external and internal electrical designs by skipping or compromising on essential aspects such as below. ·       Design features External electrical works – (Diesel Generating sets, substations, High-speed diesel/fuel storage, and distribution, Electrical distribution system and backup system,  ACB-Air circuit breakers, VCB-vacuum circuit breakers, Panels, bus bars, General Lighting, power layouts, and illuminations, distribution boards, switches, Fire doors, Access controls, CCTV, Public address system, telephones, building management system, MATV (Master Antenna Television system), Security system, wi-fi, Solar lighting system, inverter, UPS·       Design features Internal electrical works (Wirings, Fixtures and fittings, Distribution system, rising mains, MS conduits, insulated conductors, Panels, etc) ·       National and international standards for quality     ·       Specifications of BOQ material ·       Tolerances on workmanship vis a vis installation and commissioning·       Not incorporating comprehensive Quality requirements·       Not considering comprehensive Design-related construction processes for external and internal electrical works ·       Without considering standardization leading to higher costs ·       Inaccurate Bill of quantities for each design area /no off ·       Not factoring in acceptance criteria for Electrical design work in process and completed area ·       MEP designer or consultant Insisting on specific brands of BOQ -both external electrical and internal electrical items. *  ·       Compromising specifications for developing samples in collusion with vendor/contractor* ·       Using unlicensed software while developing Electrical designs.   ·       Issuing of design and drawings to Electrical (external or internal) contractor at project site without any version control * ·       Not shredding waste designs/drawings or not deleting obsolete /old soft drawings* Stage 3 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Not incorporating all requirements vis a vis Statutory approval and sanctioned design/drawings*·       Bribing mandatory Agencies which approve the safety-related specifications of electrical design works relevant for issuing safety certificates * ·       Contractors influence certifying agencies for making compromising on certification in return for favors. *   Stage 4 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Making tenders that are not comprehensive vis-à-vis technical specifications or are deliberately stated vaguely for subsequent manipulations amongst the MEP team members and contractor with ulterior motives. *  ·       In the tender, the MEP consultant/employees /engineers include names and brands of specific materials only for pre-identified /preferred vendors of the BOQ materials and MEP designers in return for commission or kickback from such vendors. *  ·       MEP designers recommend only a single source for many BOQ materials and thus leaving very few options with the project materials team to negotiate prices aggressively in return for commission /kickback to MEP designers from such vendors. ·       Tender drawings not incorporating applicable quality standards for all works. ·       Tender drawings not incorporating applicable Statutory requirements vis-à-vis applicable National/International codes w.r.t safety. *    Stage 5 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Making constructions drawings inaccurate by not obtaining or not incorporating inputs from interfacing functions into various design elements for MEP plans ·       Preparing coordinated drawings for each of relevant External & Internal Electrical work scope items vis designs and drawings without factoring inputs from Architect team, Interior design team ·       Using unlicensed software while developing MEP drawings      Stage 6 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Validating designs without proper incorporation of all proposed connected power consumption points at different progressive loads or estimated occupancy of constructed areas or pro-rata electrical power consumption over a period   ·       Considering inaccurate proposed power factor & proposed power sanction /KVA*  ·       Inadequate vetting of design efficacy and drawings developed vis-à-vis specification of BOQ materials and installation requirements.  ·       Colluding of main MEP consultant and validating design consultant to accept the design work with incorrect design calculation in return for some favors.    Stage 7 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Estimating costs based on thumb rules rather than considering detailed working vis a vis each BOQ item (e.g. Generators, ACB, VCB, Cables, Panels, Lights and fixtures, etc.), their quantity, and estimated rates based on tender documents, designs & drawings-external electrical works and internal electrical works  ·       Not considering installation, testing, and commissioning costs   Stage 8 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Making “As-built drawings” designs and drawings without verification of actual supply and installation of each BOQ material for external and internal electrical works*     You can read more about the 35 activities that can adversely impact business in Chapter 1 of my handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “    


Interior designing activities that can adversely impact business

                                                                                                                                                                                                     The design of interiors work can be relevant for buildings used for residential, commercial, shopping malls, education institutes, hotels, hospitals, offices, etc.Characteristics of a Robust Interior design work can be measured vis a vis:1 Accomplishing vision of balancing functional space between§  filled space in the area being designed §  y space in the area being designed  2 Accomplishing vision of Colour schemes that are optimum vis a vis §  Hue (Red, Green, Blue, Purple, etc excluding white, black, etc)§  value (lightness or luminosity ie how dark or light a colour is)§  intensity (brightness or dullness of colour)3 Accomplishing vision of Design style of Interiors: ·       Normal or ·       Classical ( blend of both Greek and Roman and planning perfect harmony balance and order)·        Modern (monochromatic color,…..palette, clean lines  4 Accomplishing vision of lighting ·       Mood (Ability to create an atmosphere within an area using lighting)·       Accent (Highlighting or focusing on objects like artwork or feature locations to create dramatic effects)·       Task-driven (For increasing light for specific tasks in a room eg for fine work )  ·       or Natural light (light from Sun)  5 Accomplishing vision Texture & pattern ·       Defining the physical feel of something (eg smooth, rough, slim, etc)·       Defining   appearance (eg size, shape, density, arrangement, proportion)   Inputs that contribute to making a good Interior design include:     1 Proposing the right choice of strong materials, in terms of specifications while   optimizing costs for:   Types of materials for use Key specifications of building materials (as required by customers and National/international Quality standards) Finishing material for the floor: marbles, tiles, wooden floorings, and soon Marbles/Tiles colour, hardness, grain size, texture, polish ability, chemical properties, and so wooden floorings size, colour, luster, grains, content, hardness, density, wear resistance, shear resistance, and so Finishing material for walls: paints, wallpaper, fabrics, and so on Paints workability, Gloss, viscosity, flowability, Resistance to water, wear, heat, and so wallpaper look, size, abrasion resistance, Type of coatings, strength, durability Fabrics Strength, cohesiveness, flexibility, water absorbency, dyeability, Resistance to chemicals, softness, tenacity, woven ability, length to width ratio, etc    Finishing materials for ceilings: lighting fixtures, lamps, etc   lighting fixtures, lamps types like chandelier, pendent, landscape, cove, ceiling, etc sizes, shapes, Type of lamps (LED, incandescent, fluorescent, halogen, wattage, intensity, color, temperature, etc Chinaware, chrome plated fittings,  Size, color, shape, strength, Type of material (acrylic, tempered glass), scratch resistance, crack Resistance, etc. Furniture: Chairs, sofas, tables, cupboards, almirahs, modular kitchen, etc Types of materials (wood, Aluminium, SS, Plastic, etc.), Sizes, dimensions, capacity, Make, model, color scheme,  Fixtures & fittings: For each Type of room, kitchen, bathroom, office, etc   Makes, Models, sizes, capacity, power consumption, performance parameters,  Equipment: For Gym, Spa & sauna, offices, kitchen, laundry, etc   Makes, Models, sizes, capacity, power consumption, performance parameters, Artwork: paintings, sculptures, Antique items Material types-(Glass, Ceramics, Stainless steel, Aluminium, Paper, wood, etc.)   Sizes, Shapes, Colour, strength, ease of installation, durability And so on     2 Incorporating, in Interior related design & drawings, good practices for construction or & installation of the following as per applicable Quality standards:  Process for Applicable for Carrying out plaster coating, painting, tiling, decorative work Wall finishing Laying Marbles, tiles, wooden floor, coverings with carpets Floor finishing POP, painting, suspended framework, decorative works Ceiling finishing Assembly, installation, testing & commissioning Furniture and furnishing, including internal areas and external areas like lawns, landscape Assembly, installation, testing & commissioning fixtures such as lighting, signage Assembly, installation, testing & commissioning Equipment like kitchen, laundry, office, Gym, Spa, etc Assembly, installation, testing & commissioning Artwork   Providing inputs to the Architects, including landscape/ softscape architects, and MEP designers, for integration of all designs across the project    3 Building quality in the designing process-for Interiors using designing software:Essential technical steps/activities include performing the following for developing designs.·       Generating Solid, surface, and mesh modeling·       3D navigation Visual styles, ·       Renderings, ·       DWG, and Images references ·       Integration with Architecture and MEP services Software like Pro’s modeling suite Max, AutoCAD, Autodesk Revit, Autodesk 3d’s, SketchUp Photoshop, or a similar one can be considered for developing Interior design   2)Detailed designing for elements such as walls, ceiling, flooring, furniture, fixtures staircase, internal doors & windows, etc. 3)Detailed specifications required to be generated/captured for layouts, manufacturer details, serial numbers, etc.Software like Architectural Interior Modelling or a similar one can be considered for developing Interior design.   Nine stages for creating the design of Interiors   Design activities vary considerably from company to company, but generally, there are 9 stages to designing the Interiors for buildings, as below. Whatever designing processes and software are used, designing must result in developing Robust designs by accomplishing the following:·       Build designs that are comprehensive, accurate·       Contributes to building quality in construction by incorporating national and international quality standards in BOQ/material specifications and construction processes·       Integrates statutory and safety requirements (if applicable) in the designs and drawings  ·       Optimise project costs·       Enables efficient delivery of designs & drawings ·       Incorporates maker-checker step in each design stage through the implementation   of segregation of duties concept  The nine stages are: 1. Develop interior design plans 2. Develop and design furnishing plans of the area under the scope 3. Develop reflected ceiling plans 4. Develop floor covering plans — designs, specifications, and drawings 5. Develop mechanical, electrical, and plumbing engineering plans 6. Develop design and drawings of Interior areas 7. Develop Tender documents- developing tender documents -technical design aspects8. Estimate Costs (BOQ+ labour+ direct construction variable costs) 9. Provide handholding support  In the below-listed activities, those marked *reflect those activities which can have adverse statutory implications. Stage 1 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Not obtaining or not incorporating strategic inputs (like the design of interiors to be traditional, modern, contemporary, etc vis a vis furniture, fixtures, finishing, target costs, target customers) and inspirational vision vis-à-vis each area to be designed as wall locations, reflected ceiling plans, floor covering plans, finishes, Power and data plans) from various functions ·       Not involving all relevant functional teams in the vetting of the plans as mentioned above   Stage 2 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Plans developed by untrained/unskilled professionals ·       Not involving all relevant functional teams in the vetting of the Plans·       Inadequate Standardisation leading to higher costs ·       Proposing furniture and fixtures through limited pre-identified vendors with malice intent  Stage 3 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Making RCP non-comprehensive or inaccurate by not obtaining or not incorporating inputs from functions into various design elements (like sprinklers, smoke detectors, light fixtures, fans, and lighting plans, HVAC mounts, and any other mechanical equipment requiring special venting or electrical objects on the ceiling) for RCP.·       Using unlicensed software while developing Interior designs.  ·       Making Compromises in the detailed RCP design process by skipping or compromising on essential aspects such as below. ·       RCP Design Features ·        Statutory requirements. *    ·       National and international standards for quality *    ·       Tolerance of BOQ material specifications and workmanship.·       Non-comprehensive RCP design-related Construction processes ·       Inaccurate Bill of quantities for each RCP design area /no off   ·       Inadequate Standardisation leading to higher costs ·       Measurement requirements for work in process and completed Interior design areas of the project  Stage 4 activities that can adversely impact business   ·       Making Floor plans non-comprehensive or inaccurate by not obtaining or not incorporating inputs from functions into various design elements for floor plans Using unlicensed software while developing Interior designs. ·       Compromising on tolerances for BOQ materials and installation based on the design of the preferred vendor or & contractor  ·       Making Compromises in the detailed Floor design process by skipping or compromising on essential aspects below. ·       Floor design features ·       Statutory requirements. *    ·       National and international standards for quality *·       Vague BOQ material specifications and tolerances on installation.·       Non-comprehensive Quality requirements ·       Non-comprehensive floor design-related construction processes ·       Developing renderings which are at variant from a design developed Inadequate Standardisation leading to higher costs Inaccurate Bill of quantities for each flooring design area /no off  ·       Acceptance criteria for Interior design work in process and completed area   Stage 5 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Making MEP & interior design integration plans non-comprehensive or inaccurate by not obtaining or not incorporating inputs (such as power points, data points, finishing materials, etc.) from functions into various design elements for MEP plans ·       Using unlicensed software while developing designs for interiors ·       Making Compromises in the detailed design process by skipping or compromising on essential aspects such as below. ·       Interior design Features ·        Statutory requirements. *    ·       National and international standards for quality *    ·       Vague BOQ material specifications and tolerances ·       Compromising on tolerances for BOQ materials based on the design of the preferred vendor ·       Non-comprehensive design-related construction processes and potential equipment ·       Inadequate standardization leading to higher costs ·       Inaccurate Bill of quantities for each Interior design area /no off   ·       Inspection requirements concerning inputs (like finishes, sprinklers, smoke detectors, light fixtures, fans, lighting lamps, etc) are not comprehensive ·       Non-comprehensive Quality requirements for completed areas ·       Acceptance criteria for Interior design work in process and completed area   Stage 6 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Design and drawings not aligned to approved strategic plans, concept, and layouts vis a vis Internal elevation, Sections for each area, Wall finishing configurations, ceiling profiles, Joinery details including custom-built BOQ/items, All coordinated designs, and drawings w.r.t these design aspects.  ·       Assigning the same designer to develop designs & drawings in this stage who initially developed designs in earlier design stages thus not implementing the segregation of duties concept*·       Design and drawings not comprehensive or not accurate ·       Using unlicensed software while developing Interior designs specifications and drawings ·       Developing drawings and designs which are not well coordinated leading to conflicts or rework during construction ·       Compromising specifications for the development of samples/mock-up units in collaboration with vendor/contractor·       Using smartphones in interior design work areas to take pictures and share with competitors ·       Allowing official laptops to carry outside offices/to homes of interior designers and misusing by sharing confidential information *  ·       printing of Interior design and drawings without any control and misusing these ·       Not shredding waste designs/drawings and misuse of these·       Allowing Liberal access to design servers/laptops and printers *   Stage 7 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Making tender documents non-comprehensive or inaccurate vis-à-vis the following: in tender documents. ·       BOQ material specifications (furnishing, fixtures, and equipment, Finishing BOQ like marbles, tiles, flooring, claddings, paints, fabrics, etc.) ·       Tolerances in specifications of BOQ materials ·       Interior design-related construction processes and potential equipment·       Standardisation·       Bill of quantities for each Interior design area/no off ·       Interior design features in GFC drawings·       Statutory requirements. *     ·       National and international standards for quality *·       Measurement requirements for work in process and completed Interior design areas of the project ·       Inspection requirements concerning inputs and workmanship are not comprehensive   Stage 8 activities that can adversely impact business  ·       Making cost estimates based on non-validated assumptions of BOQ material rates from vendors’ design or cost estimates from contractors. ·       Deliberately skipping a few BOQ materials from the scope of costs ·       Not computing costs on 1st Principal vis-à-vis raw materials, Direct construction materials, costs of labour/fabrication or installation leading to underestimating or overestimating project costs.   Stage 9 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Interior designer/consultant not providing adequate inputs and handholding support to project team for:·       Development of detailed specification and quality requirements ·       Development of sample boards or samples for developing Interior designs. ·       Selection of vendors for BOQ items  ·       Inspection of interior design items.·       Insisting on sourcing specific brands of BOQ materials and interior design-related consultancy services from vendor and service providers respectively in collaboration with them in return for kickbacks * You can read more about the 63 activities that can adversely impact business in Chapter 1 of my handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “    


Design of Architecture: Activities that can adversely impact business

Design of Architecture: Activities that can adversely impact businessDesign activities include carrying out design work for all types of buildings, including residential, commercial, shopping malls, education institutes, hotels, hospitals, offices, Industrials/ factories, other engineering works, etc.The Scope of design in architecture usually includes developing plans and elevations for the buildings, and architect designs for each floor, wall, and ceiling. Characteristics of a Robust Architecture are: Elegant Architecture ·       Optimum use of permitted FAR ·       Design must meet all regulatory requirements & National building code including health and safety·       Plans and Elevations must be easy to visualise and understand by all stakeholders Construction using developed design to be in plumb (i.e Walls are perfectly vertical and flawless, floors and ceilings are perfectly horizontal -unless designed otherwise and meticulously finished) ·       Durable for any changes in the use of the building·       Flexible -for changes in natural -environments/surroundings Building design to be free from potential leakages, cracks, deformities, bulging of walls or any types of defects, etc.      vis a vis in all parts/BOQ of architecture    Effective space utilisation in designing Main-kitchens, Outdoor Kitchens, restaurant kitchens, pantries Perfectly aligned parts Optimum costs Visually appealing   Inputs that contribute to making a good design of Architecture include:     1 Proposing the right choice of strong materials, in terms of specifications while   optimizing costs for:   Types of materials for use Key specifications of building materials (as required by customers and National/international Quality standards) Stones/Marbles colour, hardness, grain size, texture, polish ability, chemical properties, and so on Bricks moisture content, shape and size, compression strength, density, and so on Structure steel, low alloy steel, Stainless steel, etc Tensile strength, yield strength, elasticity, hardness, ductility, strain, toughness, and so on Aluminum strength to weight, air tightness, heat deflection, corrosion resistance, appearance, and so on Glass Colour, shapes, transparency, brittleness, hardness, resistance to fire, weather insulation, and so on Ceramic Hardness, modulus of elasticity, ductility, wear resistance, resistance to chemicals, and so on POP colour, compression strength, coarse particles, setting time, and so on Paints workability, Gloss, viscosity, flowability, resistance to water, wear, heat, and so on Wooden BOQ e.g frames, doors size, colour, luster, grains, content, hardness, density, shear resistance, and so on And so on    2.      Incorporating, in Architecture related design & drawings, good practices for construction or & installation of the following as per applicable Quality standards: ·        Site preparation (clearing vegetation, demolition, tree protection, excavation & earthwork, filling voids, disposal, etc. ·       Providing & installing brickworks ·       Providing & installing punning work·       Providing & installing woodwork like door frames, doors, etc. ·       Providing & installing steel works like railings etc.·       Providing inputs to the structural, façade, landscape, softscape architects, Interior designer, and MEP designer for integration of all designs across the project   ·        and so on  3 Building quality in the designing process for Architecture -using designing software:Essential technical steps/activities include performing the following for developing designs.·       Solid, surface, and mesh modelling·        3D navigation (e.g View cube)·        Evolving visual styles ·        Developing plans & elevations ·        Developing renderings for marketing  ·       Developing Base projected and section views·       Developing DWG ·       Developing Images references ·       Integration with Interior design and MEP servicesAnd so on Software like AutoCAD or a similar one can be considered for developing Architectural design  a)    Design to have features for building integration to enable the following: §  Create & edit Architectural design, structural engineering design, and MEP views for coordination. §  Get the design and layout of the project before construction  for general contractors, subcontractors, and owners .                              Able to develop schedule and do cost estimations using enhanced BIM concepts §  Extract the construction drawings from the coordinated and error-free model. §  Refine the drawings by adding annotations and notes            Software like Revit Architecture (BIM) or equivalent software can enable this  b)    Further a comprehensive architect design must enable the following: §  Developing Animation §  Building Flexibility to have texture options§  Generate renderings for marketing   Software like 3D Studio Max or equivalent software can enable thisSeven stages for developing the design of Architecture  Design activities vary considerably from company to company, but generally, there are 7 stages to designing the architecture for buildings, as below. Whatever designing processes and software are used, designing must result in developing Robust designs by accomplishing the following:·       Build designs that are comprehensive, accurate·       Contributes to building quality in construction by incorporating national and international quality standards in BOQ/material specifications and construction processes·       Integrates statutory and safety requirements in the designs and drawings  ·       Optimise project costs·       Enables efficient delivery of designs & drawings ·       Incorporates maker-checker step in each design stage through the implementation   of segregation of duties concept  The seven stages are:1. Developing Concept designs2. Developing Schematic design3. Developing Sanction design duly coordinated for structure, architecture, façade, landscape, interiors, MEP, etc4. Developing /Revising detailed technical Design based on sanctioned approvals5. Developing Tenders 6. Estimating Project Costs for structure, architecture, external development works, façade, landscape7. Developing working drawings & Good for construction drawings, As-built drawings.  In the activities listed below, those marked ‘*’ reflect those activities which can have adverse statutory implications Stage 1 activities that can adversely impact business·       Not obtaining or not incorporating inputs (like strategic plans vis a vis vision, landscape, traffic circulation, master plans, area plans, preliminary plans, elevations, etc) into Building Civil Architecture design ·       Not assigning competent designers*·       Using unlicensed software while developing a concept design for Civil Architecture. *   ·       Not vetting the concept and detailed design/making compromises while vetting Civil Architecture, in collaboration with, inhouse or outsourced Code Architect or consultant, by skipping or compromising on important designs and drawings aspects such as below vis a vis Civil Architecture Features: ·       Tolerances on specifications of materials and workmanship·        Statutory code-related requirements for Civil Architecture. *·       National and international standards for quality ·       Raw Materials (Bricks, POP, Paints, joineries, Inserts, stone works, Tiles, Door frames, doors, windows, etc.) sizes and specifications  ·       Quality requirements and suggestive gauging·       Civil Architecture safety requirements*   ·       Compromising on the safety of Civil Architecture by proposing low cost /low strength raw materials / Bill of quantities for Civil Architecture ·       Bribing mandatory Agencies which approve the Civil Architecture plants and elevations etc. relevant for issuing FAR and sanction drawings compliance *     Stage 2 activities that can adversely impact business·       Design intent not aligned to approved Concept design·       Schematic drawings are not comprehensive or not accurate ·       Area statements not detailed·       Cost estimates are ballpark and based on thumb rules rather than detailed assumptions. ·       Assigning the same designer to develop schematic designs & drawings, who initially developed concept design thus not implementing the segregation of duties concept*  Stage 3 activities that can adversely impact business·       Preparing drawings incorporating inaccurate area statements vis-à-vis intended construction plans and bribing the sanctioning team to get minimum non-compliance and speedy approvals *·       Assigning the same designer to develop sanctioned designs & drawings, who initially developed schematic design thus not implementing the segregation of duties concept*·          Stage 4 activities that can adversely impact business·       Colluding of the leading Architect with sanctioning authorities to obtain approval of the submission drawings that are not adequately coordinated or not aligned to instructions of sanctioning authorities in return for favors to approving authorities *  Stage 5 activities that can adversely impact business·       In the tender, including names and brands of specific materials only for pre-identified /preferred vendors of the Architect in return for commission/kickback to the Architect from such vendors. ·       Recommending only a single source for many BOQ materials and thus leaving very few options with the project materials team to negotiate prices aggressively in return for commission /kickback to the Architect from such vendors ·       Tender drawings not incorporating applicable quality for all works. ·       Tender drawings not incorporating applicable Statutory requirements vis-à-vis applicable national/international codes w.r.t safety·       Inspection requirements concerning inputs (like Bricks, POP, Paints, joineries, Inserts, stone works, Tiles, Door frames, doors, windows, etc) are not comprehensive   Stage 6 activities that can adversely impact business·       Computing costs of works for Structure, Finishes, External development, Façade, and Landscape are inaccurately based on thumb rules rather than on the first principal basis vis-à-vis raw materials, Direct construction materials, costs of labour/fabrication or installation leading to underestimating or overestimating project costs.   Stage 7 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Develop working drawings or GFC which are not fully aligned to activities in the above seven design stages  ·       Architect issuing “As-built drawings” which are aligned to earlier sanctioned drawings by statutory authorities but at variant vis-à-vis actual completed physical construction (in terms of FAR, building plans and elevations, construction materials used, etc.) *·       Bribing the statutory officials to get ok occupation and completion certificates in due course. * You can read more about the 25 activities that can adversely impact business in Chapter 1 of my handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “  


Design of Structure: Activities that can adversely impact business

 Designing of Building Structure: Activities that can adversely impact business   Designing of building structure for any building includes designing columns, foundation, stilt floor, beams, slabs, retaining walls, levels, column schedules, staircases, terraces, Sewage Treatment Plant, harvesting pits, façade areas of any building Characteristics of a Robust building structure are: Withstand earthquake vibrations and prevent displacement, deformation Free from cracks Construction to be in plumb (i.e., perfectly vertical columns & other vertical structures & walls, perfectly horizontal beams & floors) Not buckle due to loads Perfectly aligned parts Corrosion-free Aesthetically appealing    Inputs that contribute to making a good structure design include the following:      1 Proposing the right choice of strong materials in terms of specifications while optimizing costs:   Types of materials for use Key specifications of building materials (as required by customers and National/international Quality standards) TMT bars, Structural steel, etc strength, elongation, fatigue resistance, etc Cement setting time, strength, moisture, density, fineness, chemicals, etc RMC workability, mechanical strength, density, durability, etc. Shuttering materials strength, durability, rigidity, etc Scaffolding materials compression strength, tensile properties,   etc. Applicable hardware size tolerances, the material used, etc Joineries strength, flexibility, toughness, appearances, etc And so on     2         Incorporating, in Structure related design & drawings, good practices for construction or & installation of the following as per applicable Quality standards:   i)Sub-structure ·       Excavating ·       Dewatering ·       Earthmoving ·        Preparing PCC ·       Preparing RMC ·       Bending & preparing TMT bars ·        Constructing & laying the standard foundation ·       Laying the piled foundation ·       Waterproofing, ·       Concreting & masonry work in foundations ii) Superstructure ·       Scaffolding ·       Shuttering ·       Constructing frameworks for all columns, beams, etc ·       Constructing upper floor ·       Constructing roof structure ·       Constructing stairs/ramps ·       Constructing external walls ·       Constructing external windows &external doors ·       Internal walls & partitions ·       Internal doors ·       And so on  iii)Providing inputs to the building architects, Interior designers, and MEP-package designers for integration of all designs across the project     3 Essential technical steps/activities to facilitate building quality in the designing process for Structure include: ·       Drawing grids ·       Defining materials ·        Defining section properties ·       Drawing objects in the structural engineering models ·       Developing plans and elevations ·       Defining & Selecting loads ·       Soil-Structurer Interaction ·       Structural Dynamics ·       Earthquake analysis ·       Wind and seismic loads as per National standards ·       Value engineering And so on Software like ETAB can facilitate carrying out such activities accurately & efficiently.   Validation of design Validation of developed design by carrying out structural analysis by an independent proof consultant is desirable, and the scope usually includes: ·       Linear Static and Dynamic Analysis of RCC Structures, Design and Detailing of RCC Beams, Columns, Slabs, and Foundations, Composite deck and Parametric Modelling, Modal Frequency of a Structure, Wind Loads on RCC structure, FEM Analysis, and Design and so, on Software like STADD or similar can be considered for structural analysis and developing an error-free, comprehensive design. Seven stages for creating the design of Structure  Design activities vary considerably from company to company, but generally, there are seven stages to designing the Structure for buildings, as below. Whatever designing processes and software are used, designing must result in developing Robust designs by accomplishing the following: ·       Build designs that are comprehensive, accurate ·       Contributes to building quality in construction by incorporating national and international quality standards in BOQ/material specifications and construction processes ·       Integrates statutory and safety requirements in the designs and drawings   ·       Optimise project costs ·       Enables efficient delivery of designs & drawings ·       Incorporates maker-checker step in each design stage through the implementation   of segregation of duties concept   The seven stages are: 1. Developing Concept Design 2. Vetting of design 3. Developing GFC and specifications 4. Tender development 5. Obtaining a Structural stability certificate 6. Making Cost estimates for the entire Structure 7. Issuing “As-built drawings.”   These are not being narrated in detail as design activities can vary from organisation to organisation. Therefore, only activities that can adversely impact business are captured here.   In the activities listed below, those marked ‘*’ reflect those activities which can have adverse statutory implications.   Stage 1 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Not obtaining and not incorporating inputs (like Purpose of building, Features of Structure, Structural safety requirements vis-à-vis zone in which building is to be constructed, Overall dimensions and FAR, overall building Plan and elevation, etc.)  from other interfacing functions like selling, architects, and construction into the Structure design ·       Not assigning competent designers* ·       Using unlicensed software while developing a concept design for Structure * ·       Making compromises while vetting structure design, by skipping or compromising on structure designs and drawings aspects such as below. ·       Tolerances on specifications of materials and workmanship ·        Statutory code-related requirements for Structure * ·       National and international standards for quality ·       Raw Material (TMT bars, Cement, or RMC) sizes and specifications,   the lower factor of safety*    ·       Proposing low cost /low strength raw materials   ·       Bribing mandatory Agencies which approve the structure design calculations relevant for issuing structural stability certificates*     Stage 2 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Colluding the principal architect and proof consultant to accept the consultancy design work with incorrect design calculations (e.g., TMT bars sizes and Grades like Fe415, Fe 550, RMC (M20, M30, M40, etc., Cement-OPC 43, OPC 53, PPC, etc.) in return for some favours. ·       Assigning the same designer to validate the design, who initially developed it, thus not implementing the segregation of duties concept*     Stage 3 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Making GFC drawings that are not aligned to design calculations   ·       Architect Insisting on specific brands of TMT bars and Cement or RMC in collaboration with vendors of brands and getting financial favours. * ·       Compromising specifications for developing samples in collaboration with vendor/contractor. ·       Releasing of design and drawings and issuing these to structure contractor at a site without any control ·       Not shredding or deleting waste designs/drawings and misuse of this     Stage 4 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Making tenders that are not comprehensive vis-à-vis technical specifications or are deliberately stated vaguely for subsequent manipulations amongst the architect and contractor with ulterior motives. ·       In the tender, the Structural Engineer/architect includes names and brands of specific materials only for pre-identified /preferred vendors of the Structural Engineer/Architect in return for commission/kickback from such vendors. * ·       Architect recommending only a single source for many BOQ materials and thus leaving very few options with the project materials team to negotiate prices aggressively in return for commission /kickback to an architect from such vendors. * ·       Inspection requirements concerning inputs such as TMT bars, Cement, and RMC are not comprehensive ·       Tender drawings not incorporating applicable quality standards for all works, and applicable Statutory requirements, particularly w.r.t safety. *     Stage 5 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Bribing the certifying officials to get a Structural Stability Certificate in due course. *     Stage 6 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Computing costs based on thumb rules rather than the first principal basis vis a vis costs of TMT bars, Cost of Cement, Cost of RMC, and other structural elements relevant as also costs of shuttering, cost of scaffolding, costs of joinery, etc. and cost of labour/fabrication for each part of the Structure, floor wise, and each building.   Stage 7 activities that can adversely impact business    ·       Preparing “As-built drawings” shown as aligned to Structure Stability certificate, but actual physical construction of the built-up Structure is in deviation to the “as-built drawings” in terms of TMT Bar sizes, RMC, safety factor and construction materials used, etc.       You can read more about the 29 activities that can adversely impact business in Chapter 1 of my handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services. “    


Ethics in design functions in real estate and hospitality service - An overview

Welcome to the blog on Ethical Processes in BusinessThe word “ethics” refers to the moral principles or values that enable us to do the right things. In a broader sense, ethics include integrity, objectivity, professional competence, confidentiality, and professional behaviour. Any compromise in ethics can lead to adverse implications for the organization. This blog is a supplement to my first book on “Ethics in the Real Estate Industry” which is expected to be launched soon. In the first volume of the book, three design functions - Architectural design, Interior design, and MEP services have been analysed from an ethical perspective. For this purpose, we have considered 91 key processes and tabulated 916 key business activities in each of three design functions that, which if not performed diligently and professionally, can hurt the organization Type of activities Design of Architect Design of Interiors Design of MEP Combined for 3 functions Core activities - 292 Core Design 116 63 69 248 Statutory 18 12 14 44 Subtotal 134 75 83 292   Essential supporting activities - 282 Making Configuration tables 4 4 4 12 Making master data tables 4 4 4 12 Risk assessment 47 47 47 141 Assigning access rights 39 39 39 117 Subtotal 94 94 94 282   Other supporting activities - 342 Designer's traceability 3 3 3 9 Audit trails of designer's activities 2 2 2 6 Coding schemes 14 14 14 42 Document management systems-Hard-Designs & Drawings 12 12 12 36 Document management systems-soft-Designs & drawings 8 8 8 24 Budgeting for designers 11 11 11 33 MIS/Dashboard for designers 14 14 14 42 SOP for designers 8 8 8 24 Financial approvals 16 16 16 48 Core documents 6 6 6 18 Statutory documents 7 7 7 21 Functional manuals 3 3 3 9 Similar type 3 3 3 9 Key performance indicators-Designers  7 7 7 21 Subtotal 114 114 114 342   Grand total of Activities 342 283 291 916 The adverse impacts have been categorized as any one of three types below or a combination thereof and marked as ① or ② or ③① Quality of design or quality of construction or project costs or customer satisfaction or revenue of the company as relevant.② Statutory or regulatory compliances③ Efficiency or effectiveness of the design processA comprehensive list of these activities and their impact is available in the handbook – “Ethics in the Real Estate and Hospitality Industry – Volume 1”