Design activities include carrying out design work for all types of buildings for any purpose like residential, commercial, shopping malls, education institutes, hotels, hospitals, offices, Industrials/ factories, other engineering works, etc.
The Scope of design -Architecture includes developing plans and elevations for all the superstructure architect designs for each floor, wall, and ceiling.
Generally, there are 7 stages to designing building architecture as below
1 Developing Concept designs
2 Developing Schematic design
3 Developing Sanction design duly coordinated for structure, architecture, façade, landscape, interiors, MEP, etc
4 Developing /Revising detailed technical Design based on sanctioned approvals
5 Developing Tenders for works such as structure, architecture, external development works, façade, landscape
6 Estimating Project Costs for structure, architecture, external development works, façade, landscape
7 Developing working drawings & Good for construction drawings, As-built drawing.
This may require using software like AutoCAD, Revit Architecture (BIM),3D Studio Max, Photoshop, and other software options
In the activities listed below, those marked ‘*’ reflect those activities which can have adverse statutory implications
Stage 1 activities that can adversely impact business
· Not obtaining or not incorporating inputs (like strategic plans vis a vis vision, landscape, traffic circulation, master plans, area plans, preliminary plans, elevations, etc) into Building Civil Architecture design
· Using unlicensed software while developing a concept design for Civil Architecture. *
· Not vetting the concept and detailed design/making compromises while vetting Civil Architecture, in collaboration with, inhouse or outsourced Code Architect or consultant, by skipping or compromising on important designs and drawings aspects such as below vis a vis Civil Architecture Features:
· Tolerances on specifications of materials and workmanship
· Statutory code-related requirements for Civil Architecture. *
· National and international standards for quality
· Raw Materials (Bricks, POP, Paints, joineries, Inserts, stone works, Tiles, Door frames, doors, windows, etc.) sizes and specifications
· Quality requirements and suggestive gauging
· Civil Architecture safety requirements*
· Compromising on the safety of Civil Architecture by proposing low cost /low strength raw materials
· Bill of quantities for Civil Architecture
· Bribing mandatory Agencies which approve the Civil Architecture plants and elevations etc. relevant for issuing FAR and sanction drawings compliance *
Stage 2 activities that can adversely impact business
· Design intent not aligned to approved Concept design
· Schematic drawings are not comprehensive or not accurate
· Area statements not detailed
· Cost estimates are ballpark and based on thumb rules rather than detailed assumptions.
Stage 3 activities that can adversely impact business
· Preparing drawings incorporating inaccurate area statements vis-à-vis intended construction plans and bribing the sanctioning team to get minimum non-compliance and speedy approvals *
Stage 4 activities that can adversely impact business
· Colluding of the main architect with sanctioning authorities to obtain approval of the submission drawings that are not adequately coordinated or not aligned to instructions of sanctioning authorities in return for favors to approving authorities *
Stage 5 activities that can adversely impact business
· In the tender, including names and brands of specific materials only for pre-identified /preferred vendors of the architect in return for commission/kickback to the architect from such vendors.
· Recommending only a single source for many BOQ materials and thus leaving very few options with the project materials team to negotiate prices aggressively in return for commission /kickback to the Architect from such vendors
· Tender drawings not incorporating applicable quality for all works.
· Tender drawings not incorporating applicable Statutory requirements vis-à-vis applicable national/international codes w.r.t safety
Stage 6 activities that can adversely impact business
· Computing costs of works for Structure, Finishes, External development, Façade, and Landscape are inaccurately based on thumb rules rather than on the first principal basis vis-à-vis TMT bars, Cement, RMC, Structural steel, Direct construction materials leading to underestimating or overestimating project costs.
Stage 7 activities that can adversely impact business
· Develop working drawings or GFC which are not fully aligned to activities in the above seven design stages
· Architect issuing “As-built drawings” which are aligned to earlier sanctioned drawings by statutory authorities but at variant vis-à-vis actual completed physical construction (in terms of FAR, building plans and elevations, construction materials used, etc.) *
· Bribing the statutory officials to get ok occupation and completion certificates in due course. *
Handbook of the author
You can read more about the 25 activities that can adversely impact business in Chapter 1 of my handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “