Design of Architecture-Civil works: Unethical activities that can adversely impact business Design activities include designing all types of buildings for residential, commercial, shopping malls, education institutes, hotels, hospitals, offices, Industrials/ factories, other engineering works, etc.The Scope of design -Architecture includes developing plans and elevations for all the superstructure architect designs for each floor, wall, and ceiling. The author has identified Six design stages or activities that need to be followed as below. · 1 Concept designs· 2 Schematic design· 3 Sanction design · 4 Detailed Design· 5 Tenders · 6 Estimating Project Cost· 7 As-built drawings. This may require using the software as AutoCAD, Revit Architecture (BIM),3D Studio Max, Photoshop, and other software optionsIn the below-listed activities, those marked *reflect those activities which can have adverse statutory implications. Activities that can adversely impact business in design stage 1 above · Not obtaining or not incorporating inputs (like strategic plans vis a vis vision, landscape, traffic circulation, master plans, area plans, preliminary plans, elevations etc) into Building Civil Architecture design · Using unlicensed software while developing a concept design for Civil Architecture. * · Not vetting the concept and detailed design/making compromises while vetting Civil Architecture, in collaboration with, inhouse or outsourced Code Architect or consultant, by skipping or compromising on important designs and drawings aspects such as below vis a vis Civil Architecture Features: · Tolerances on specifications of materials and workmanship· Statutory code-related requirements for Civil Architecture. *· National and international standards for quality · Raw Materials (Bricks, POP, Paints, joineries, Inserts, stone works, Tiles, Door frames, doors, windows, etc.) sizes and specifications · Quality requirements and suggestive gauging· Civil Architecture safety requirements* · Compromising on the safety of Civil Architecture by proposing low cost /low strength raw materials · Bill of quantities for Civil Architecture · Bribing mandatory Agencies which approve the Civil Architecture plants and elevations etc. relevant for issuing FAR and sanction drawings compliance * Activities that can adversely impact business in design stage 2 above · Design intent not aligned to approved Concept design· Schematic drawings are not comprehensive or not accurate · Area statements are not detailed· Cost estimates are ballpark and based on thumb rules rather than detailed assumptions. Activities that can adversely impact business in design stage 3 above · Preparing drawings incorporating inaccurate area statements vis-à-vis intended construction plans and bribing the sanctioning team to get minimum non-compliance and speedy approvals * Activities that can adversely impact business in design stage 4 above · Colluding of the main architect with sanctioning authorities to obtain approval of the submission drawings that are not adequately coordinated or not aligned to instructions of sanctioning authorities in return for favours to approving authorities *Activities that can adversely impact business in design stage 5 above · Computing costs of works for Structure, Finishes, External development, Façade, and Landscape are inaccurately based on thumb rules rather than on the first principal basis vis-à-vis TMT bars, Cement, RMC, Structural steel, Direct construction materials leading to underestimating or overestimating project costs. Activities that can adversely impact business in design stage 6 above · Develop working drawings or GFC which are not fully aligned to activities in the above design stages · Architect issuing “As-built drawings” which are aligned to earlier sanctioned drawings by statutory authorities but at variant vis-à-vis actual completed physical construction (in terms of FAR, building plans and elevations, construction materials used, etc.) *· Bribing the statutory officials to get ok occupation and completion certificates. * Forthcoming Handbook of the author You can read more about the 25 activities that can adversely impact business in Chapter 1 of my handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services. “
Design of structure for any type of building includes designing columns, foundation, stilt floor, beams, slabs, retaining walls, levels, column schedules, staircases, terraces, Sewage Treatment Plant, harvesting pits, façade areas, etc. vis-a-vis each building. Seven design stages have been identified by the author to design structure as below. 1. Develop Concept Design.2. Vetting of design 3. Develop GFC and specifications4. Tender development5. Obtaining a Structural stability certificate6. Making Project Cost estimate for the entire structure7. Issuing “As-built drawings.” This may require using the software as STADD, ETAB or and other software options.In the below-listed activities, those marked *reflect those activities which can have adverse statutory implications. Activities that can adversely impact business in design stage 1 above · Not obtaining and not incorporating inputs (like Purpose of building, Features of structure, Structural safety requirements vis-à-vis zone in which building is to be constructed, Overall dimensions and FAR, overall building Plan and elevation, etc.) from other interfacing functions like selling, architects, and construction into the Design of Structure.· Using unlicensed software while developing a concept design for Structure *· Making compromises while vetting structure design, by skipping or compromising on structure designs and drawings aspects such as below. · Tolerances on specifications of materials and workmanship· Statutory code-related requirements for Structure * · National and international standards for quality · Raw Material (TMT bars, Cement, or RMC) sizes and specifications, the lower factor of safety* · Proposing low cost /low strength raw materials · Bribing mandatory Agencies which approve the structure design calculations relevant for issuing structural stability certificate* Activities that can adversely impact business in design stage 2 above · Colluding the principal architect and proof consultant to accept the consultancy design work with incorrect design calculations (e.g. TMT bars sizes and Grades like Fe415, Fe 550, RMC (M20, M30, M40, etc, Cement-OPC 43, OPC 53, PPC etc ) in return for some favours. Activities that can adversely impact business in design stage 3 above · Making GFC drawings that are not aligned to design calculations · Architect Insisting on specific brands of TMT bars and Cement or RMC in collaboration with vendors of brands and getting financial favours. * · Compromising specifications for developing samples in collaboration with vendor/contractor. · Releasing of design and drawings and issuing these to structure contractor at a site without any control · Not shredding or deleting waste designs/drawings and misuse of this Activities that can adversely impact business in design stage 4 above · Making tenders that are not comprehensive vis-à-vis technical specifications or are deliberately stated vaguely for subsequent manipulations amongst the architect and contractor with ulterior motives. · In the tender, the Structural Engineer/architect includes names and brands of specific materials only for pre-identified /preferred vendors of the Structural Engineer/Architect in return for commission/kickback from such vendors. *· Architect recommending only a single source for many BOQ materials and thus leaving very few options with the project materials team to negotiate prices aggressively in return for commission /kickback to an architect from such vendors. *· Inspection requirements with respect to inputs such as TMT bars, cement, and RMC are not comprehensive · Tender drawings not incorporating applicable quality standards for all works, and applicable Statutory requirements particularly w.r.t safety. * Activities that can adversely impact business in design stage 5 above · Bribing the certifying officials to get a Structural Stability Certificate in due course. * Activities that can adversely impact business in design stage 6 above · Computing costs based on thumb rules rather than the first principal basis vis a vis costs of TMT bars, Cost of Cement, Cost of RMC, and other structural elements relevant as also costs of shuttering, cost of scaffolding, costs of joinery, etc. and cost of labour/fabrication for each part of the structure, floor wise, and each building.Activities that can adversely impact business in design stage 7 above · Preparing “As-built drawings” shown as aligned to Structure Stability certificate, but actual physical construction of the built-up structure is in deviation to the “as-built drawings” in terms of TMT Bar sizes, RMC, safety factor and construction materials used, etc. You can read more about the 29 activities that can adversely impact business in Chapter 1 of my forthcoming handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design and MEP services “
Ethics in design functions in real estate and hospitality service -An overview Three design functions namely i.e. Architectural design, Interior design, and MEP services have been analysed by the author from ethical perspectives. The word “ethics” refers to the moral principles or values that enable us to do the right things. In a broader sense, ethics include integrity, objectivity, professional competence, confidentiality, and professional behaviour.Any compromise in ethics can lead to adverse implications for the organization.Starting This blog, a series of blogs will be published over the next few months highlighting the extracts from the forthcoming handbook of the author. Overall, this author has analysed 91 key processes performed by the three design functions along with business activities and has identified several activities in the handbook as summarised below, which if not performed diligently/meticulously can hurt the organization1 Design Activities identified =292 · Design of Architect -core =116, statutory=18· Design of Interiors - core =63, statutory=12· Design of MEP- core =69, statutory=14 Sub-total - core =248, statutory=44 2 Supporting activities identified, that are essential to perform above=282 are listed below:· For configuration tables =12 @ 4/function· For Master data tables =12 @ 4/function· For risk assessments=141 @47/function · For access rights=117 @39/function3 Other Supporting activities identified are as below =342@114 in each design functions· user traceability=3, audit trails=2, coding schemes=14,· Design document management -Hard documents =12, Design document management .-soft documents =8· Budgeting=11, Management Information System=14, Standard Operating Procedure =8, Financial approval=16· Core documents=6, Statutory documents =7, · Identifying Functional manuals=3, identifying similar type manual=3, Identifying KPI (key performance indicators for designers) =7 Sub-total= 114 The adverse impacts have been categorized as any one of three types below or a combination thereof and marked as ① or ② or ③ ① Quality of design or quality of construction or project costs or customer satisfaction or revenue of the company as relevant.② Statutory or regulatory compliances③ Efficiency or effectiveness of the design process The activities are listed in the forthcoming book, Titled “ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “ . .